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Articles by David A. Stahl
Total Records ( 3 ) for David A. Stahl
  Stefan Schouten , Ellen C. Hopmans , Marianne Baas , Henry Boumann , Sonja Standfest , Martin Könneke , David A. Stahl and Jaap S. Sinninghe Damste
  In this study we analyzed the membrane lipid composition of "Candidatus Nitrosopumilus maritimus," the only cultivated representative of the cosmopolitan group I crenarchaeota and the only mesophilic isolate of the phylum Crenarchaeota. The core lipids of "Ca. Nitrosopumilus maritimus" consisted of glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) with zero to four cyclopentyl moieties. Crenarchaeol, a unique GDGT containing a cyclohexyl moiety in addition to four cyclopentyl moieties, was the most abundant GDGT. This confirms unambiguously that crenarchaeol is synthesized by species belonging to the group I.1a crenarchaeota. Intact polar lipid analysis revealed that the GDGTs have hexose, dihexose, and/or phosphohexose head groups. Similar polar lipids were previously found in deeply buried sediments from the Peru margin, suggesting that they were in part synthesized by group I crenarchaeota.
  Robert H. Findlay , Christine Yeates , Meredith A. J. Hullar , David A. Stahl and Louis A. Kaplan
  A field study was conducted to determine the microbial community structures of streambed sediments across diverse geographic and climatic areas. Sediment samples were collected from three adjacent headwater forest streams within three biomes, eastern deciduous (Pennsylvania), southeastern coniferous (New Jersey), and tropical evergreen (Guanacaste, Costa Rica), to assess whether there is biome control of stream microbial community structure. Bacterial abundance, microbial biomass, and bacterial and microbial community structures were determined using classical, biochemical, and molecular methods. Microbial biomass, determined using phospholipid phosphate, was significantly greater in the southeastern coniferous biome, likely due to the smaller grain size, higher organic content, and lower levels of physical disturbance of these sediments. Microbial community structure was determined using phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) profiles and bacterial community structure from terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism and edited (microeukaryotic PLFAs removed) PLFA profiles. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to investigate patterns in total microbial community structure. The first principal component separated streams based on the importance of phototrophic microeukaryotes within the community, while the second separated southeastern coniferous streams from all others based on increased abundance of fungal PLFAs. PCA also indicated that within- and among-stream variations were small for tropical evergreen streams and large for southeastern coniferous streams. A similar analysis of bacterial community structure indicated that streams within biomes had similar community structures, while each biome possessed a unique streambed community, indicating strong within-biome control of stream bacterial community structure.
  Wei Wang , Anthony R. Richardson , Willm Martens-Habbena , David A. Stahl , Ferric C. Fang and Eric J. Hansen
  Growth of Moraxella catarrhalis in a biofilm resulted in marked upregulation of two open reading frames (ORFs), aniA and norB, predicted to encode a nitrite reductase and a nitric oxide reductase, respectively (W. Wang, L. Reitzer, D. A. Rasko, M. M. Pearson, R. J. Blick, C. Laurence, and E. J. Hansen, Infect. Immun. 75:4959-4971, 2007). An ORF designated nsrR, which was located between aniA and norB, was shown to encode a predicted transcriptional regulator. Inactivation of nsrR resulted in increased expression of aniA and norB in three different M. catarrhalis strains, as measured by both DNA microarray analysis and quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR. Provision of a wild-type nsrR gene in trans in an nsrR mutant resulted in decreased expression of the AniA protein. DNA microarray analysis revealed that two other ORFs (MC ORF 683 and MC ORF 1550) were also consistently upregulated in an nsrR mutant. Consumption of both nitrite and nitric oxide occurred more rapidly with cells of an nsrR mutant than with wild-type cells. However, growth of nsrR mutants was completely inhibited by a low level of sodium nitrite. This inhibition of growth by nitrite was significantly reversed by introduction of an aniA mutation into the nsrR mutant and was completely reversed by the presence of a wild-type nsrR gene in trans. NsrR regulation of the expression of aniA was sensitive to nitrite, whereas NsrR regulation of norB was sensitive to nitric oxide.
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