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Articles by Daniel J. Berlau
Total Records ( 2 ) for Daniel J. Berlau
  Carrie B. Peltz , Maria M. Corrada , Daniel J. Berlau and Claudia H. Kawas
  Objective To determine the prevalence and types of cognitive impairment in a sample of nondemented participants aged ≥90 (the oldest-old) and to examine the relationships between cognitive impairment and cardiovascular risk factors. Participants The participants were 420 nondemented individuals from The 90+ Study, a study of aging and dementia in the oldest-old. These participants were categorized into four nonoverlapping groups: normal cognition, amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), nonamnestic MCI (naMCI), and other cognitive impairment (OCI). History of cardiovascular risk factors was assessed through self-report. Results The overall prevalence of cognitive impairment in nondemented participants was 34.0% (95% CI: 29.5–38.5). The prevalence of OCI was highest (17.4%; 95% CI: 13.9–21.4), followed by aMCI (8.3%; 95% CI: 5.9–11.4) and naMCI (8.3%; 95% CI: 5.9–11.4). Normal cognition was present in 66.0% (95% CI: 61.2–70.5) of participants. History of hypertension and stroke were the only risk factors that varied between the groups, occurring more frequently in participants with naMCI (χ2 = 3.82; P < .05) and OCI (χ2 = 5.51; P < .05). Conclusions This study found a high prevalence of cognitive impairment in a sample of nondemented oldest-old. We did not find a strong relationship between cardiovascular risk factors and the cognitive impairment groups, other than between hypertension and naMCI and stroke and OCI. Future studies comparing the incidence of dementia in these groups will ultimately determine their predictive utility in the oldest-old.
  Maria M. Corrada , Annlia Paganini- Hill , Daniel J. Berlau and Claudia H. Kawas
  Background Although the apolipoprotein E (APOE) ɛ4 allele is a major genetic risk factor for Alzheimer‘s disease (AD), it is not clear whether this relationship persists among the oldest old. Several European studies suggest that the effect of the APOE ɛ4 allele on dementia and mortality disappears in very old age. We describe the APOE allele and genotype frequencies and examine whether the presence of the APOE ɛ4 or APOE ɛ2 alleles is related to prevalent dementia, incident dementia, and mortality in a population-based cohort of oldest-old participants in the United States. Methods We studied 904 participants aged 90 years and older from The 90+ Study. Eight hundred two (89%) participants were genotyped and included in the prevalent dementia and mortality analyses. The 520 initially nondemented participants were included in the incident dementia analyses and were evaluated for dementia every 6 months. Results The APOE ɛ4 allele was significantly associated with prevalent dementia (odds ratio = 2.06) and AD (odds ratio = 2.37) in women but not in men. The APOE ɛ2 allele was not related to prevalent dementia in either sex. After an average follow-up of 2.4 years, 188 incident dementia cases were identified. Neither the APOE ɛ4 nor the APOE ɛ2 allele was related to incident dementia or AD. Five hundred ten (64%) participants died after an average follow-up of 2.3 years, and their mortality was not related to the presence of either the APOE ɛ2 or APOE ɛ4 allele. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the associations between APOE ɛ4, dementia, and mortality are age dependent, and that APOE ɛ4 no longer plays a role in dementia and mortality at very old ages.
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