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Articles by D.R. Jones
Total Records ( 4 ) for D.R. Jones
  J.K. Northcutt , D.R. Jones , K.D. Ingram , A. Hinton , Jr. and M.T. Musgrove
  Total aerobic bacteria, molds/yeasts, coliforms and pseudomonads in the air in three shell egg processing operations (in-line, off-line and mixed operations) were determined using MicroBio MB2 Air Samplers. Sites were sampled from each facility on three different days (replication) during the same week. Four air samples (1000 L each) were drawn from each sampling site on a given day. Sampling sites, included areas in or near the following on-site locations: hen house (in-line and mixed operations), farm transition room (in-line and mixed operations), egg washers, egg dryer, packer heads, post-processing cooler, nest-run cooler (off-line and mixed operations), loading dock and dry storage. Type of operation (in-line, off-line or mixed), sampling site and the interaction between operation and site had a significant effect on the number of total aerobic bacteria, molds/yeasts, coliforms and pseudomonads recovered (P < 0.05). Highest counts for total aerobic bacteria (5.9 log10 cfu/ml air), molds/yeasts (4.0 log10 cfu/ml air) and coliforms (2.5 log10 cfu/ml air) were found in the hen house. Highest counts for pseudomonads were found in the hen house (3.2 log10 cfu/ml air) and behind the egg washer (3.5 log10 cfu/ml air). Lowest counts for total aerobic bacteria (2.5 log10 cfu/ml air) and molds/yeast (2.7 log10 cfu/ml air) were found in the post-processing cooler. Few samples in the post-processing coolers, nest-run coolers, loading docks and dry storage areas tested positive for coliforms (0/36, 2/24, 1/36 and 0/36, respectively) and pseudomonads (1/36, 2/24, 5/36 and 6/36, respectively). Data gathered during this study has been useful in identifying the sources and levels of airborne contaminates in commercial shell egg processing facilities.
  J.K. Northcutt , D.R. Jones and M.T. Musgrove
  Total aerobic bacteria, molds/yeasts, E. coli and Enterobacteriaceae in the air during the commercial production and processing of Japanese quail were enumerated at twelve different sites. Production-related sampling sites included the breeder and grow-out houses along with the hatchery setter, hatcher, egg room and chick room. Processing-related sampling sites included the hanging/stunning area, scalding/defeathering room, evisceration line, chiller exit, further processing area and shipping room. Sampling site had a significant effect on the log10 counts for total aerobic bacteria, molds/yeasts, E. coli and Enterobacteriaceae and (P < 0.0001). Moreover, significant correlation was found between airborne bacteria counts and both environmental temperature and humidity (P < 0.05). During production, highest counts for total aerobic bacteria (8.1 log10 cfu/ml air), molds/yeasts (3.6 log10 cfu/ml air), E. coli (1.9 log10 cfu/ml air) and Enterobacteriaceae (2.3 log10 cfu/ml air) occurred in the grow-out house. Lowest production-related counts for total aerobic bacteria (3.5 log10 cfu/ml air), molds/yeasts (2.5 log10 cfu/ml air) and Enterobacteriaceae (2.0 log10 cfu/ml air) occurred in the chick room at the hatchery. At the processing facility, highest counts for total aerobic bacteria (6.8 log10 cfu/ml air), E. coli (1.4 log10 cfu/ml air) and Enterobacteriaceae (1.5 log10 cfu/ml air) occurred in the areas where quail are hung/stunned and scalded/defeathered. E. coli was not found at any of the sampling sites in the hatchery (setter, hatcher, egg room, chick room) or at the chiller exit, further processing area or shipping room at the processing facility. Data gathered during this study may be useful in identifying the sources and levels of airborne contaminates in commercial production and processing of quail so that effective intervention practices may be established or strengthened.
  D.R. Jones and J.K. Northcutt
  Shell egg processing facilities in the U. S. were surveyed for common production practices and water use. Results were compiled and analyzed for frequency and significance via chi-square analysis. Of the respondents, 65.8 % utilized wells as their primary source of water. Furthermore, 19.2 % of the facilities discharged water to city sewers. Over half of the facilities processed 7 d each week with 8 to 9 h shifts (P < 0.05). There was a similar distribution of in-line, off-line and mixed operations represented in the responses. Two-thirds of the operations were dual washer systems with about half being plumbed separately. Over 90 % of the operations performed daily sanitation. Most facilities did not attempt to recycle water from their process. Fifty percent of the respondents utilized processing lines that are 5-15 yr old. The age of the processing line, number of processing days each week, size of facility and type of operation did not have a significant effect on water use.
  D.R. Jones , M.T. Musgrove , A.B. Caudill , P.A. Curtis and J.K. Northcutt
  A study was conducted to examine the effects of cool water washing on the microbial quality of shell eggs. Six dual tank wash water temperature schemes were examined for their ability to reduce naturally occurring aerobic bacteria and inoculated Salmonella Enteritidis (SE). The wash water schemes were: T1= 48.9oC; T2 = 48.9oC, 23.9oC; T3 = 48.9oC, 15.6oC; T4 = 23.9oC; T5 = 15.6oC; and T6 = 23.9oC, 15.6oC. All wash water tanks were maintained from 10.5-11.5 pH throughout the study. Eggs were exposed to the wash water temperature schemes in a pilot egg washer with recirculating wash water tanks. The total amount of time eggs were exposed to the wash water combinations was 60 s. Following washing, all eggs were sprayed with a 48.9oC, 200 ppm chlorine rinse solution. Eggs were stored and sampled for 9 wks. External aerobic populations were lowest for T1 (typical U.S. wash water configuration), followed by T2 and T3. Aerobic surface contamination was greatest in T5 eggs. All treatments reduced SE levels in a similar manner as detected by shell and membrane emulsion and egg contents pools after enrichment. Commercial application of cool water shell egg processing will be investigated to determine the potential of this technology to enhance the safety and quality of shell eggs.
 
 
 
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