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Articles by D.P. Smith
Total Records ( 6 ) for D.P. Smith
  W.R. Windham , G.W. Heitschmidt , D.P. Smith and M.E. Berrang
  The contents of the upper digestive tract (i.e. crop, proventriculus and gizzard) may serve as a source of carcass contamination during broiler processing. The crop as been identified as a source of Salmonella and Campylobacter on contaminated carcasses and is more likely to rupture than the ceca during commercial evisceration. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of hyperspectral imaging for detecting ingesta contamination spots varying in mass from the crop and gizzard. Pre-chilled broiler carcasses were collected from a commercial processing plant. Crop and gizzard contents were also aseptically collected and enumerated for Campylobacter, coliforms, E. coli and total aerobic bacteria. Broiler carcasses were imaged and then contaminated with a spot of known mass (10, 50, or 100 mg) of crop or gizzard contents. Carcasses were then re-imaged. The imaging system correctly detected 100% of the crop and gizzard contents regardless of the mass or spot size. However, not every pixel associated with a given spot (contaminant ground truth) was detected. Detection of crop and gizzard content contaminant ground truth pixels averaged 72 and 53%, respectively. The mean number of bacteria in the crop contents were as follows: E. coli 4.0 log, coliforms 4.1 log, and total aerobic bacteria 5.7 log CFU/g of crop contents. Crop contents in the current study were Campylobacter negative. Applying crop contents in the amounts of about 9, 54, and 231 mg resulted in significant (P< 0.05) increases in all bacterial population measured, with the biggest increase being noted for total aerobic bacteria. Gizzard contents contained only 4.6 log CFU/g of total aerobic bacteria. The total added bacterial load from contamination with known amounts of crop and gizzard contents did not significantly increase whole carcass counts of all bacteria enumerated. Based on these counts and numbers of bacteria found in gizzard, carcass contamination with visible ingesta does not appear to significantly increase bacterial load.
  H. Zhuang , E.M. Savage , D.P. Smith and M.E. Berrang
  Advantages of air chilling (AC) methods over immersion chilling (IC) methods in quality retention and improvement of deboned chicken breast meat depend on experimental conditions, such as deboning time. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a dry-AC method on shear force and water-holding capacity (WHC) of broiler breast meat deboned 4h postmortem compared to hot-boned (no chill) or immersion-chilled meat. Ready-to-cook broiler carcasses were hot-boned, chilled by ice water immersion (0.3 °C, 50 min) or chilled by cross-flow cold, dry air (0.7 °C, 150 min). Pectoralis (p.) major and p. minor were removed from the bone at 4 h postmortem. Shear force was measured using a Warner-Bratzler (WB) method and WHC was estimated using cooking yield, drip loss, amount of bound water (filter paper method) and water uptake (swell/centrifugation method). Regardless of muscle type, the WB shear force value of AC samples was significantly lower than that of hot-boned samples; however, there was no difference in the shear force between AC and IC. Regardless of measurement methods, there were no differences (P > 0.05) in WHC between the three treatments. These results demonstrate that when compared to no chill, AC followed by 4 h postmortem deboning can lead to a difference in WB shear values while WHC properties can be retained. For broiler breast meat deboned 4 h postmortem, AC does not result in any significant differences in shear force and WHC when compared to IC.
  D.P. Smith
  Two experiments were conducted to determine the effect of ultrasonic or static marination on meat quality measures (marination uptake, drip loss cooked yield and texture) and reduction of Salmonella and Escherichia coli. In experiment one, twelve butterfly fillets per each of two trials (n = 24) were collected from a commercial processing plant and trimmed of connective or fat tissue, then cut into paired fillets. One fillet from each pair was assigned to marination either with ultrasonication or without (static) for 20 min in a solution containing 91% water, 6% NaCl and 3% Sodium Tripolyphosphate (STP). Fillets were weighed, held for 18 h, cooked and analyzed for texture using Allo-Kramer shear. Sonication resulted in lower uptake (2.6%), less drip loss (1.1%) and lower cooked yield (84.3%) than static marination (4.8, 2.2 and 88.7%, respectively); there was no difference in shear due to marination method (3.4 vs. 3.7 kg/g). In experiment two, 4 trials were conducted to determine the effect of marination method on numbers of Salmonella and Escherichia (E.) coli. In each trial, two whole boneless (butterfly) skinless broiler breasts were obtained from a retail store and split into paired fillets (n = 8). Ten min prior to marination fillets were inoculated with 1.0 ml of a culture containing nalidixic acid-resistant strains of Salmonella (mean count of 7.1 log10) and E. coli (mean count of 6.1 log10). After marination fillets were sampled for bacterial enumeration. There were no significant (p<0.05) differences due to ultrasonication for either Salmonella (mean count 4.6 log10 CFU) or E. coli (mean count of 2.8 log10 CFU).
  D.P. Smith
  Acid solutions have been used as antimicrobials on meat and poultry. FreshFx is a commercially-available surface treatment for the reduction of pathogens and extension of shelf life of raw poultry. Two replicate trials were conducted to determine the effect of FreshFx on numbers of total aerobes and inoculated Salmonella on raw turkey breast meat during 14 d of refrigerated storage. In each trial, three turkey breast meat cutlets, obtained at retail, were inoculated with nalidixic acid-resistant Salmonella and cut in half. One half was dipped in FreshFx for 30 s and the other half dipped in water for 30 s as a control, then all cutlet halves were refrigerated at 4°C and sampled at 0, 1, 2, 7, 10 and 14 d for total aerobic bacteria and Salmonella. No reduction (P>0.05) in numbers of total aerobes or Salmonella was observed due to FreshFx. Mean log cfu for total aerobes was 7.1 on d 0 and 7.8 on d 14. Mean pooled Salmonella log cfu were 6.9 on d 0 and 5.1 on d 14. Total aerobe counts were artificially high on d 0 to 10 due to the large numbers of Salmonella initially inoculated onto the samples. The persistence of Salmonella on samples during refrigerated storage reinforces the concept of reducing or eliminating pathogens prior to packaging and cold storage. In this experiment FreshFx did not improve shelf life as measured by reduction of total aerobes during refrigerated storage, nor reduce numbers of inoculated Salmonella on raw turkey breast meat.
  D.P. Smith , J.K. Northcutt , C.S. Sigmon and M.A. Parisi
  Several factors may affect poultry breast meat quality, both intrinsic characteristics (age, sex, size and strain) and external influences (carcass aging time postmortem before deboning, fillet marination and cooking method). Commercial duck processors are now expanding into the deboned breast meat markets but very little research is available on duck meat quality as compared to other poultry species. Therefore, the following study was conducted to determine the effect of duck sex, size and fillet marination on breast meat quality. Duck rearing, processing and carcass deboning were conducted at a commercial facility. Carcasses were kept separate by sex and were then sized to 1.6 kg (S), 2.0 kg (M) and 2.5 kg (L) after chilling. After 6 h aging on the carcass, breast fillets were removed and half of the fillets from each sex-size category were marinated while the other half of the fillets (unmarinated) were held as controls. A total of 360 fillets were produced, 30 in each of 12 categories (2 sexes X 3 sizes X 2 treatments). At the laboratory, fillets were weighed, evaluated for raw color, cooked, reweighed, evaluated for cooked color and sheared via Warner-Bratzler (WB). Uncooked and cooked fillet weights were significantly affected by bird size (p<0.05). Marination increased fillet cook yield compared to control fillets (73.5% versus 69.1%, respectively) and decreased WB shear values (2.2 kg versus 3.2 kg, respectively). Less force was required to shear the first slice using WB as compared to the second WB slice (2.4 and 3.0 kg, respectively). Lightness (L*) and yellowness (b*) values were lower in uncooked fillets from females than males ducks and marination decreased raw fillet L* values and cooked b* values for both sexes. Results showed that sex, carcass size and marination affect duck breast meat quality.
  W.R. Windham , G.W. Heitschmidt , K.C. Lawrence , B. Park and D.P. Smith
  Detection of small masses (i.e. 10 mg and less) of fecal contaminants on broiler carcasses presents a significant challenge when using a multispectral imaging system. In contrast to the spectrally noncontiguous multispectral imagery, hyperspectral imagery can be seen as a single image with a contiguous spectrum of reflectance values associated with each image pixel. On a broiler carcass, the spectra may be recognizable as feces provided the contaminant fills or almost fills the pixel in the corresponding scene. Pixels partially filled (i.e. mixed pixels) by a contaminant result in a spectral signature that is a mixture of feces and carcass skin. Mixed pixels with small fecal masses on broiler carcasses can be problematic to accurately detect. The objective of this study was to determine whether hyperspectral imagery offered an improved detection rate of fecal contamination of known mass (2 to 10mg) relative to multispectral imagery; specifically, of fecal matter originating from the cecal. On each of three replicate sample days, twenty-four eviscerated, pre-chilled broiler carcasses were collected from a commercial processing plant. Cecal contents from the same flock were also collected and used to contaminate the carcasses. Carcass halves were first imaged uncontaminated and then imaged again after cecal contents (2, 5, or 10 mg) had been applied to the carcasses. Contaminants were predicted by decision tree (DT) and mixture tuned matched filter (MTMF) classifiers, and results compared. The DT classifier, applied to the multispectral imagery, detected 63, 80, and 100% of the cecal mass applied at about 2, 5 and 10 mg, respectively. The low detection accuracy of the 2 and 5 mg masses was due to some contaminated mixed pixels that either went under-detected or in some cases undetected altogether (false negatives). The MTMF classifier, applied to the hyperspectral imagery, detected 88% of 2 mg and 100% of the 5 and 10 mg contaminants. At an applied mass of about 2, 5, and 10 mg, the MTMF classifier detected 55, 52, and 53%, respectively more cecal contaminated pixels than the DT classifier. The DT classifier incorrectly identified 104, 59, and 56 false positives on carcasses contaminated with about 2, 5, and 10 mg of ceca. On average, these false positives occurred on 36% of the carcasses. The MTMF classifier detected far fewer false positives on 15% of the carcasses.
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