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Articles by D.M. Hooge
Total Records ( 4 ) for D.M. Hooge
  L.C. Wang , D.M. Hooge , C. Wen , C. Liang , T. Wang and Y.M. Zhou
  Tri-basic copper chloride (TBCC®, 58% copper; Micronutrients, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA) and copper sulfate pentahydrate (25% copper) were evaluated as dietary supplements at substantially higher than requirement levels for improving growth and carcass characteristics of ducks. Newly hatched Cherry Valley meat-strain ducklings (1,280) were assigned randomly to 4 treatment groups and fed a basal diet supplemented with 1 of the following: 1) 10 mg copper/kg diet from TBCC® (control; standard diets); 2) 150 mg copper/kg from copper sulfate pentahydrate; 3) 150 mg copper/kg from TBCC®; or 4) 0 mg added copper/kg (8.9 and 7.2 mg copper/kg in starter and grower by analysis) but with antibiotic growth promoter (40 mg zinc bacitracin and 40 mg garlicin/kg). Feed/gain ratios of high TBCC® and of antibiotic-fed ducks from 21-42 and 0-42 d were improved (p = 0.045; p = 0.029) vs. control ducks, with high copper sulfate pentahydrate results intermediate. The high TBCC® group had lower (p = 0.045) mortality % 21-42 d than the high copper sulfate pentahydrate group, with control or antibiotic-fed group results intermediate. For the entire trial (0-42d), feed/gain ratios of high TBCC® or antibiotic-fed groups were significantly improved (p = 0.029) compared to control group, with the high copper sulfate pentahydrate group intermediate. The high TBCC® (150 mg copper/kg of feed) significantly lowered feed/gain ratio of meat ducks compared with control (10 mg copper from TBCC®/kg of feed) during the starter, grower and entire trial periods and reduced mortality % compared with high copper sulfate pentahydrate (150 mg copper from copper sulfate pentahydrate/kg of feed) during the grower period.
  D.M. Hooge , J.L. Pierce , K.W. McBride and P.J. Rigolin
  A meta-analysis of body weight and feed conversion ratio results from broiler chicken pen trials plus a few commercial trials (2001-2009) from several countries was conducted to demonstrate effects of a dietary enzyme complex (Allzyme® SSF, Alltech, Inc., Nicholasville, Kentucky USA) versus no supplement (negative control) on live performance. In the statistical meta-analysis, 28 references provided results for 51 comparisons (paired t-test) from which overall averages for body weight and feed conversion ratio were calculated. The final age (days) in each trial or in the experimental feeding period was noted and an estimate of final age was calculated using the ending age in each trial. Broiler chicken final body weight with the dietary enzyme complex product was found to be 0.057 kg or 3.73% greater than unsupplemented chicken body weight whereas feed conversion ratio was lowered by 0.043 or 2.64% with the enzyme product. These changes in live performance exceed those of Fisher and Wilson (1974) and those predicted by linear regression analysis using data from Jackson et al. (1982) and Waldroup (1996) for 75 extra kcal ME/kg of diet. Therefore, the 75 kcal ME/kg uplift used in the manufacturer's ingredient matrix appears to be conservative for the enzyme complex product based on results in the cited publications. Base on results presented herein, this enzyme complex product is recommended for use in broiler chicken feeds either by addition on top to take advantage of expected benefits or by reformulating the diets with 75 kcal less ME/kg (along with -0.1% calcium, -0.1% available phosphorus and -1% essential amino acids used in formulation). The usual rate of inclusion is 0.02% or 200 g/tonne.
  D.M. Hooge , J.L. Pierce , K.W. McBride and P.J. Rigolin
  A statistical meta-analysis was conducted using results from 16 laying hen trials (1995-2008; plus some undated reports) from several countries to demonstrate effects of a dietary enzyme complex (+SSF; Allzyme® SSF, Alltech, Inc., Nicholasville, Kentucky USA) versus no supplement (nCON, negative control) on 6 performance parameters. The paired t-test (Statistix 8, Analytical Software, Tallahassee, Florida USA) was used in the statistical analysis. A total of 26 comparisons from 16 trials were possible for hen-day egg production, egg weight and daily egg mass production and 24 comparisons from 14 trials were possible for daily feed intake, feed/dozen eggs and kg feed/kg eggs. Overall averages for the parameters were calculated and levels of significance (p-values) were given. The inclusion rates for the enzyme product in the diets was listed. Hen-day egg production was numerically (p = 0.136) improved by 1.09% actual (+1.29% relative) for +SSF compared to nCON diets. Egg weight was significantly (p = 0.006) greater for eggs from hens fed +SSF rather than nCON diets (+0.89 g or +1.49%). Daily egg mass produced was significantly greater (p = 0.014) for +SSF than for nCON fed hens (+1.74 g/hen/day or +3.47%). Feed intake was numerically (p = 0.281) lowered by 0.50 g/hen daily (-0.44%) by using +SSF diets compared to nCON diets. Feed/dozen eggs was significantly (p = 0.028) reduced by 0.027 kg/dozen (1.65%) and kg feed/kg eggs was significantly (p = 0.004) reduced by 0.069 (3.04%) for +SSF diets compared to nCON diets. Enzyme supplementation (Allzyme® SSF) at 150 g/tonne of feed is recommended to improve the egg weight, daily egg mass and feed conversion ratios of laying hens.
  M.D. Sims , B. Zweifel , P. Williams and D.M. Hooge
  Background and Objectives: Agolin® Poultry is an encapsulated blend of essential oil compounds. A 42 day trial was conducted with 1,800 broiler chicks using 3 dietary treatments and 20 pens/treatment (30 chicks/pen) to evaluate live performance. Methodology: Chicks received live coccidia vaccine at placement (day 0). Pelleted basal diets (CON) or diets with Agolin® Poultry (200 mg kg1, 0-14 days and 100 mg kg1 14-42 days) or BMD® (55 mg kg1, 0-28 days) and Stafac® (22 mg kg1, 28-42 days) were fed. Litter was new wood shavings initially and used litter was added on day 4 to provide Eimeria and bacterial pathogens. Daily light: dark cycle was 16:8 h. Litter was sampled at 14, 28 and 42 days for moisture and ammonia (by analyzing for nitrogen, then calculating theoretical ammonia). Oocysts per gram (OPG) feces were counted and foot pad lesion severity scores (0-2) were taken at 42 days. Results: The 28 and 35-day body weights were heavier on Agolin® or antibiotic diets than CON diets. Weight gain from 14-28 or 14-35 days was greater on Agolin® diets than CON with antibiotic diets intermediate. The 0-35 days mortality-adjusted feed conversion ratios (MAFCR) were lower on Agolin® or antibiotic diets than CON diets. Mortality (2.46-3.18%) was unaffected by treatment. Mortality percentage was unaffected by treatment. Litter moisture, OPG in feces and foot pad lesion scores were not different but 28 day litter ammonia tended to be lower on Agolin® diets. Conclusion: The 35-day BW and 0-35 day MAFCR were significantly improved by Agolin® or antibiotic diets compared to CON diets.
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