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Articles by D.M. Mekki
Total Records ( 12 ) for D.M. Mekki
  O. Olowofeso , J.Y. Wang , G.J. Dai1 , Y. Yang , D.M. Mekki and H.H. Musa
  A total of 240 genomic DNAs were isolated from the four Haimen chicken populations: Rugao, Jiangchun, Wan-Nan and Cshiqishi, through a saturated salt procedure. The samples were used in a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with 15 microsatellite markers. Amplified PCR-products with the markers were separated on a 12% polyacrylamide gel. Genetic parameters measured included allele number within locus per population, mean allele number across populations, mean allele number among loci for each population, effective allele number for each locus, mean across populations and among loci effective number of alleles (). Polymorphism information content (PIC) per locus and for all loci obtained as well as the average heterozygosity (H) among loci in the populations. The mean allele number for all loci ranged between 5.73±0.85 (Cshiqishi) to 6.00±0.74 (Rugao) and 6.00±0.84 (Jiangchun) with across populations for all loci equals 5.88±0.06; while (H) ranged from 0.6486±0.06 (Wan-Nan) to 0.7017±0.03 (Jiangchun) among loci and across populations, (H) was 0.6828±0.01. The () ranged from 3.96±0.60 (Wan-Nan) to 4.11±0.47 (Rugao); and () have values between 0.6068±0.06 (Wan-Nan) to 0.6509±0.04 (Jiangchun). The average heterozygosity among loci in each population was used further to obtained the cumulative power of discrimination (CPD) and was 99%. Angular genetic distances (DA) calculated ranged between 0.1691 (Rugao vs Wan-Nan) to 0.3372 (Rugao vs Cshiqishi). Dendrogram developed linked Rugao and Jiangchun as closely related, Wan-Nan been intermediate and Cshiqishi distantly related. It was concluded that the markers were suitable for the measurement of all genetic parameters of Haimen chicken populations.
  H.H. Musa , G.H. Chen , J.H. Cheng , B.C. Li and D.M. Mekki
  Anka and Rugao chicken breed were reared under the same environment and management. During 12 weeks age the growth rate of Anka breed was found better than Rugao, and similarly within breeds Males were grow faster than females. The results shows that (live weight, carcass weight, dressing out percentage, semi-eviscerated weight, eviscerated weight, breast muscle weight, leg muscle weight, heart weight, liver weight and abdominal fat weight) were significantly (P< 0.01) different in Anka and Rugao breed, however the Abdominal fat % was statistically non significant (P>0.05) between breeds. Males compared to females shows significantly (P>0.01) higher live weight, carcass weight, semi-eviscerated weight, eviscerated weight, breast muscle weight, liver weight and abdominal fat weight within two breeds. However, Leg muscle weight, heart weight were non significantly different (P>0.05). In addition dressing out percentage was significantly (P< 0.05) different between males and females in Anka breed and non significantly in Rugao breed. In Anka chicken breed abdominal fat weight was positively correlated with live weight, carcass weight, breast muscle weight, and percentage of abdominal fat weight; and it was negatively correlated with leg weight. In Rugao breed abdominal fat weight was positively correlated with live weight, carcass weight, breast muscle weight, leg muscle weight and percentage of abdominal fat. However, the percentage of abdominal fat weight was negatively correlated with live weight, carcass weight, breast muscle weight and positively with leg muscle weight and abdominal fat weight.
  Y. Yang , D.M. Mekki , S.J. Lv , L.Y. Wang , J.H. Yu and J.Y. Wang
  The three nonlinear curves of Logistic, Gompertz and Bertalanffy model were used to fit the growth model in Jinghai Yellow chicken of different sex. The results indicated that the three growth models were well fitted the prediction of growth parameters. Females reached inflexion point at earlier age than males; however, their body weight was significantly lighter than males. Inflexion body weight were 1098.99, 1161.86 and 1392.91 g for males and 824.29, 827.99 and 918.67 for female estimated from Logistic, Gompertz and Bertalanffy models, respectively. Fitting degrees (R2) for the three models were higher than 99%. The lower X2 values estimated were 9.22 and 7.43 from Bertalanffy model for males and females respectively indicated that, Bertalanffy model was the best model fitted growth prediction parameters of Jinghai Yellow chicken.
  Yu Ya-Bo , Wang Jin-Yu , D.M. Mekki , Tang Qing-Ping , Li Hui-Fang , Gu Rong , Ge Qing-Lian , Zhu Wen-Qi and Chen Kuan-Wei
  A total of 720 individuals of 12 indigenous chicken populations, geographically localized in Southern China were genotyped for 30 microsatellite markers in polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to evaluate the genetic variation and genetic distance between populations. All microsatellites were found to be polymorphic. Heterozygosity was calculated to determine the genetic variation. Of the 30 microsatellite loci, number of alleles per locus (Na) and effective number of alleles per locus (Ne) ranged from 4 to 11 and 2.157 to 8.019, respectively. The average expected heterozygosity (HE) was 0.669, while the average observed heterozygosity (HO) was 0.764. The polymorphism information content (PIC) has values between 0.560 and 0.641. Using Nei`s standard distance, genetic distance (DA) calculated ranged between 0.088 (Guanxi Sanhuang vs. Nandan Yao) and 0.495 (Huiyang Beard vs. Zhangzhou Game). The topology of phylogenetic trees constructed showed general patterns of relationship and genetic differentiation among the indigenous populations studied, however, both trees from Neighbor-Joining method and Unweighted Pair Group method showed a similar topology. The results provided evidence of the applicability of microsatellite to determining the genetic relatedness among different Chinese indigenous chicken populations and evaluating of genetic variations.
  Y. Yang , D.M. Mekki , S.J. Lv , J.H. Yu , L.Y. Wang , J.Y. Wang , K.Z. Xie and G.J. Dai
  Canonical correlation analysis of three character sets including 23 variables of Jinghai yellow chicken was performed. Strong significant correlations were obtained between body weight and body measurement characters (0.9153), body weight and carcass characteristics (0.9618) and body measurement and carcass characteristics (0.9618). The coefficients represented 98.46, 98.96 and 92.82% of the total correlation between the two character sets, respectively. Canonical correlation analysis had been able to identify the relevant variables of the three character sets of Jinghai yellow chicken and it would be an appropriate method of analysis to find optimally correlated patterns of chicken body weight, body measurement and carcass characters.
  Musa, H.H , A.H. Suleiman , F.M. El amin , G.H. Chen , D.M. Mekki and B.C. Li
  The West African sheep was originated in the West African countries, brought to Sudan in 1930. These breeds include (Uda, Sankara and Weila) strains. They are normally reared to gather as mixed pastoral flocks, followed different routes during summer and autumn seasons. In the first phase of this study 75 females and 10 males were selected with typical characteristics of the breed, brought to the University of Nyala experimental farm. In the second phase basic information from tribal breeders and their sheep flocks were collected. For each phase flock statistics were recorded and then some reproductive and productive traits were estimated. Season and age effect on mortality of sheep flock was estimated. Likewise feed lot experiment was done to examine the possibility of sheep for improvement of meat production. Body length, heart girth, height at withers and chest depth were measured for lambs at birth to one year age and similar measurements were taken for adult flocks.
  H.H. Musa , G.H. Chen , K.H. Wang , B.C. Li , D.M. Mekki , J.T. Shu and H.P. Ju
  Serum cholesterol, lipoprotein concentration and carcass characteristics data were taken in 30 fat and 40 lean chickens. Breeds were differed significantly (p<0.001) in carcass traits and non significantly (p>0.05) in carcass portions. Color density and pH were also differed significantly (p<0.05), whereas water holding capacity (WHC) and shear force value were non significant (p>0.05). Both breeds showed positive correlation for carcass traits, while abdominal fat was negatively related with breast muscle in lean breed. Significant difference (p<0.05) were observed in cholesterol and LDL and non significant (p>0.05) in triglyceride, VLDL and HDL level. Cholesterol and triglyceride were respectively related with LDL and VLDL. HDL was observed negatively related with triglyceride and cholesterol. Sex was effect significantly (p<0.05) in triglycerides and VLDL level and non significantly (p>0.05) in cholesterol, HDL and LDL level in fat breed. However, lean breed observed non significant difference (p>0.05) for lipoprotein concentrations. Correlation of lipoprotein concentrations and carcass trait were determined. In both breeds lipoprotein concentrations were negatively related with carcass traits. LDL was positively related with breast muscle and abdominal fat weight and triglyceride with live weight in fat breed. In lean breed cholesterol and LDL were presented positive correlation with all carcass traits.
  H.H. Musa , J.H. Cheng , X.S. Wu , H.P. Ju , D.M. Mekki and G.H. Chen
  Present study was focus to compare LDL receptor mRNA expression, total cholesterol, triglyceride, lipoprotien levels and abdominal fat weight in genetically fat and lean chickens. Genetically lean (Rugao) and fat (Anka) chickens were reared in the same environmental condition, at 12 weeks of age samples of liver tissue were collected and abdominal fat weight was determined. Similarly, total cholesterol, triglycerides and high density lipoprotein were assayed using a commercial enzymatic kit, very low density lipoprotein and low density lipoprotein were estimated using the Friedewald equation. Total RNA from liver tissues were isolated using the standard Trizol methods and then total RNA was reverse transcribed by moloney murine Leukemia virus. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR was developed to quantify the levels of LDL receptor mRNA expression. The level of LDL receptor expression was significantly (p< 0.05) difference between lean and fat chicken. In addition, lean and fat chickens were significantly differed on triglyceride, very low density lipoprotein and abdominal fat weight. The expression of LDL receptor mRNA in liver of fat chicken was negatively correlated with abdominal fat weight. However, in lean chicken was negatively correlated with total cholesterol, triglyceride, lipoprotein concentration, abdominal fat weight and percentage of abdominal fat weight. In addition, within two breeds LDL receptor mRNA expression in liver was negatively correlated with low density lipoprotein, abdominal fat weight and percentage of abdominal fat weight.
  H.H. Musa , G.H. Chen , J.H. Cheng , D.M. Mekki , S.H.Xu and J. Huang
  Lipogenesis plays a role in the maintenances of body composition in the growing animals. Lipogensis was regulated in the liver and adipose tissue by the composition of macronutrients in diet. High carbohydrates and little fat was elevated lipogenesis than rich fat and low carbohydrates. Serum samples were preferred because of cholesterol and triglyceride concentration is about 3-5% higher in serum than in EDTA plasma, although no significant serum plasma difference was observed for HDL. There are a variety of methods to measure the lipoprotein classes. All require separation of the classes before they can be measured and recently analysis was performed usingenzymatic kits. Hormonal regulation of lipogenesis has been investigated by measuring hormone levels in the blood as a function of dietary state and by ablating specific endocrine glands in the intact animals, following replacement therapy with specific hormone. Hormone identified in experiments with intact animals was then tested in cell culture systems. Similarly the effect of nutrition on lipoprotein metabolism was reviewed. In the species point of view, the turkey in contrast to chicken seems to be a bird in which muscle growth is more important than adipose tissue growth. This difference in rate of fat deposition in extra-hepatic tissue is due to inherited differences. On the other hands, atherosclerotic plaques were found more severe in the quail selected for high cholesterol than in that selected for low cholesterol.
  T.P. Lanyasunya , H.H. Musa , Z.P. Yang , D.M. Mekki and E.A. Mukisira
  The relationship between nutrition and reproduction is a topic of increasing importance. Many research reports have clearly demonstrated that energy, protein and minerals intake are the most important nutritional factors affecting reproduction and therefore milk production in dairy farms. This is particularly evident on smallholder farms in the tropics where feed is often inadequate. On these farms, voluntary feed intake in relation to the feed required for maintenance is the most important factor determining the animal`s body condition. Many of the dairy animals on smallholder farms cannot build sufficient body reserves (particularly energy and protein) due to lack of adequate feed. As a direct consequence of feed inadequacy, dairy stock on most smallholder resource-poor farms are often in poor body condition (emaciated). Conception rate and calving intervals have been shown to be highly correlated, to by weight and body condition. The study revealed that animals with low body weights showed low conception rate and long calving interval. Energy and protein have shown to maintain essential levels of blood cholesterol and improve pregnancy from 42 to 72% respectively. Correlation of reproductive hormone cycle, calf and lamb birth rates, weaning rates, lactation length and yield with plane of nutrition, have been adequately illustrated. This is evidenced by the current high incidences of dairy cow infertility on smallholder farms in Kenya. Based on the literature reviewed, the current study concluded that poor nutrition is a major contributor to the current poor reproductive performance of dairy cows on smallholder farms. Poor nutrition is also largely incriminated for predisposing animals to diseases leading to high mortality and morbidity rates on these farms. It is therefore perceived that improvement of ruminant livestock diets on smallholder farms will greatly improve reproductive performance and therefore herd productivity on smallholder farms. In the long run, this will also impact positively on the economic status of the household.
  H.H. Musa , A.H. Suleiman , T.P. Lanyasunya , O. Olowofeso and D.M. Mekki
  eventeen male Ostrich chicks (Ostruiothio, Camelus camelus) aged one month old were brought from Radom National Park to the research farm of University of Nyala, both in Sudan, and reared indoor, concentrate rations were formulated and provided ad-libitum and water equally supplied. During the study period, chick behaviour were observed, body weight gained (g/day), feed intake (g/day), water consumption (liter/day) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were found to be 178.64, 447.91, 4.18 and 2.39, respectively. Rapid growth rate during the age of 2 to 4 months resulted to leg deformation which eventually leads to the death of some chicks with mortality rate 41.20% at the end of the experiment. The body measurements at different ages of chicks were highly significant (P< 0.05). There were high positive correlations between live weight and other parameters estimated (shank diameter and length, nick diameter and length, wing length, body length, heart girth and bird high).
  H.H. Musa , G.H. Chen , A.H. Suleiman and D.M. Mekki
  The genetically fat Anka and lean Rugao chicken breeds were used for this study, both are reared in the same environment and management system. Body weight and abdominal fat weight were determined at 12 weeks of age. A polymerase chain reaction single strand conformation polymorphism technique was applied to detect mutation in intron 8 of lipoprotein lipase gene. Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE) test shows that allele frequency was significantly (p<0.01) different in Rugao population in locus LPL10 and non significantly different in Anka population. In addition chi-square test shows that populations were significantly (p<0.01) differed from each other. Body weight in fat breed was significantly (p<0.05) different between LPL genotypes in LPL9 and LPL10 loci. However, the abdominal fat was significantly (p<0.05) different in LPL10 locus. In addition lean breed shows non significant difference on body weight and fat weight. Genotype effect within two breeds showed that body weight and fat weight in LPL9 and LPL10 loci were significantly (p<0.05) higher in heterozygous AC compared with homozygous AA.
 
 
 
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