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Articles by D.J. Donoghue
Total Records ( 8 ) for D.J. Donoghue
  A.D. Wolfenden , J.L. Vicente , L.R. Bielke , C.M. Pixley , S.E. Higgins , D.J. Donoghue , A.M. Donoghue , B.M. Hargis and G. Tellez
  Effective Competitive Exclusion (CE) cultures have been shown to accelerate development of normal microflora in chicks and poults, providing increased resistance to infection by some enteric bacterial pathogens. Our objective was to develop a CE culture for prophylaxis and reduced horizontal transmission of Salmonella enteritidis (SE) in broiler chickens. In the present study, seven members of the family Enterobacteriaceae and 2 lactic acid bacteria isolates, each capable of in vitro and in vivo inhibition of SE, were selected and combined to form the putative CE culture. In the first experiment, day-of-hatch chicks were randomly divided into four pens. All treated chicks were orally gavaged with the CE culture and 3 pens were treated with the CE culture in the drinking water for four consecutive days. Treated and control-non treated chicks were challenged with SE on day 4. All 3 groups of birds that were treated with the CE culture had a significant decrease (p<0.05) in cecal colonization compared with non-CE-treated SE-challenged chicks. Two additional experiments were designed to measure the efficacy of the CE culture in reducing SE horizontal transmission from infected to uninfected chicks when commingled. SE was recovered in the cecal tonsils with a significantly lower incidence at days 7 and 14 in Experiment 2 and day 7 in Experiment 3 from the groups that received the CE in the drinking water as compared to controls respectively. These results suggest that a relatively simple and defined CE culture can reduce SE colonization in neonatal chicks.
  H.P. Bhaskaran , A.M. Donoghue , K. Arsi , A. Wooming , I. Reyes-Herrera , L.R. Bielke , G. Tellez , J.A. Byrd , P.J. Blore , B.M. Hargis and D.J. Donoghue
  The administration of nonpathogenic microflora in neonatal poultry has been employed to reduce or eliminate the colonization of enteric pathogens. This concept, also called Competitive Exclusion (CE), although effective against Salmonella, has not consistently worked against Campylobacter. Most CE cultures are developed by randomly collecting enteric bacteria without any preselection criteria for bacteria. It may be possible to enhance the efficacy of a CE against Campylobacter by preselecting enteric microflora with the ability to inhibit Campylobacter, in vitro. With this goal, an assay was developed to test individual isolates with the ability to reduce or eliminate Campylobacter growth, in vitro. Individual isolates (n = 137) were collected from ceca of both juvenile and adult poultry and tested for efficacy against Campylobacter. Isolates were serially diluted (104 or 105 CFU/well) and added to 96 well polystyrene plates containing 1 x 104 CFU C. jejuni or C. coli/well. Plates were incubated at 42°C in a microaerophilic environment for 24-48 h. Following incubation, a 1 μl loop from each well was streaked onto Campy-Cefex agar plate and incubated at 42°C in a microaerophilic environment for 24-48 h. Twenty-three isolates were identified with the ability to inhibit C. jejuni or C. coli growth in vitro. This research demonstrates that it is possible to pre-screen enteric isolates for Campylobacter inhibition for use as competitive exclusion cultures.
  J.R. Moyle , F. Solis de los Santos , G.R. Huff , W.E. Huff , N.C. Rath , M. Farnell , A.C. Fanatico , S.C. Ricke , C. Enders , U. Sonnenborn , D.J. Donoghue and A.M. Donoghue
  Concerns over the use of antibiotics as growth promoters in poultry production has led to interest in finding alternative growth promoters such as natural compounds and probiotics. Supplementing feed with probiotics has shown to enhance the Gastrointestinal Tract (GIT) development of chickens and turkeys. The human probiotic, E. coli Nissle 1917 (EC Nissle) has been shown to stimulate innate immunity in mammals and to increase body weight in poultry. However, the effect of this probiotic on GIT development has not been studied. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of EC Nissle in the maturation of the GIT of young turkey poults. Fifty-four day of hatch turkey poults were housed in battery brooders and fed either a standard diet or the same diet containing of 108cfu EC Nissle /bird/day for 21 days. For GIT morphometric analysis, birds were euthanized on days 4, 7 or 21 and samples collected to evaluate villus height, villus surface area, lamina propria thickness, crypt depth and the number of neutral goblet cells. GIT morphometric analysis was conducted on duodenum, jejunum, ileum and cecum on days 4 and 7 and the duodenum on day 21. Villus height and villus surface of the GIT were higher in the EC Nissle treatments compared to control (p<0.05) on all sampling days with the exception of the jejunum and ileum on day 4. Lamina propria thickness and crypt depth were also increased in the EC Nissle treatment in all sections of the GIT except on day 4 in the jejunum. These data suggest that this human E. coli isolate enhanced the maturation of the GIT in young turkey poults and may have potential as an alternative to growth promoting antibiotics.
  G.Q. Liu , A.M. Donoghue , J.R. Moyle , I. Reyes-Herrera , P.J. Blore , R.K. Bramwell , D.E. Yoho , K. Venkitanarayanan and D.J. Donoghue
  Campylobacter is one of the leading causes of bacterial human acute gastroenteritis. These microorganisms are highly prevalent in poultry semen and may contribute to vertical transmission of the pathogen between the breeder hen and offspring. Unfortunately, strategies to reduce or eliminate these pathogens in poultry semen negatively impact sperm viability. Many plant essential oils have been reported to exhibit antimicrobial activity against bacteria, fungi and viruses. The objective of our study was to examine the efficacy of trans-cinnamaldehyde, the main component in cinnamon oil, to reduce Campylobacter concentrations in chicken semen. Semen was collected from roosters, pooled and diluted with semen extender, then divided into treatments: negative control (no Campylobacter, no trans-cinnamaldehyde), positive control (inoculated with Campylobacter, no trans-cinnamaldehyde) or treatments containing concentrations of 0.24, 0.12, 0.06, 0.03 or 0.015% trans-cinnamaldehyde. Treatment groups receiving Campylobacter were then immediately inoculated with ~105 cfu/mL of a wild-type Campylobacter jejuni and held at 4°C or 23°C for 2 h. Semen was stored at 4°C for an additional 24 h and assessed for Campylobacter concentrations and sperm viability at 2, 6 and 24 h utilizing SYBR 14/Propidium iodide live/dead stain and fluorescent microscopy. The study was replicated eight times. After 2h at 23°C a 2 log reduction in Campylobacter counts were observed in the 0.12 and 0.24% trans-cinnamaldehyde treatment groups compared to positive controls. In the 4°C treatments, no differences were observed between treatments and controls after 2 h. Samples evaluated after 24 h incubation in vitro at 4°C, showed significant reductions of Campylobacter counts in the 0.06, 0.03 or 0.015% trans-cinnamaldehyde treatments groups, while the 0.12 and 0.24% groups eliminated detectable Campylobacter counts. Sperm viability remained at 80% or above for all treatment groups. Trans-cinnamaldehyde reduced Campylobacter in semen, without detrimentally affecting sperm viability and might provide a practical solution to eliminate Campylobacter in poultry semen after in vitro storage.
  I. Reyes-Herrera , M.J. Schneider , P.J. Blore and D.J. Donoghue
  Presence of antibiotic residues in edible animal products is a human food safety concern. To address this potential problem, many governments sample edible tissues, such as muscle, to monitor for residues. Alternatively, antibiotic residue concentrations could be screened in blood which is readily available during carcass processing. To determine if blood concentrations are predictive of muscle concentrations, 252 market aged broilers were dosed with Oxytetracycline (OTC) in water at three doses: the maximum OTC approved dose for broilers (800 mg/gal) or five or ten times that dose. Blood and muscle samples were collected before initial dosing (0 hour, controls), during dosing at 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 96 or 144 hours and at 12, 24, 36, 48 or 60 hours after drug withdrawal. Concentrations in blood and muscle tissues followed similar time: concentration patterns, peaking 24 hours after initial dosing (396±9 vs. 557±37 ppb; 443±48 vs. 1846±58 ppb or 2447±67 vs. 3210±36 ppb for the 1, 5 or 10x doses in blood vs. muscle, respectively) and declined rapidly after withdrawal. These data suggest blood samples may be used to predict OTC concentrations in muscle as a screening procedure for OTC residues in poultry.
  J.H. Metcalf , P.A. Moore Jr , A.M. Donoghue , K. Arsi , A. Woo-Ming , P.J. Blore , I. Hanning , S.C. Ricke and D.J. Donoghue
  To evaluate potential bacterial runoff from poultry litter, litter was applied to test plots and exposed to simulated rainfall 1, 8 or 15 d after litter application. Runoff samples were tested for Salmonella and Campylobacter, two bacterial pathogens commonly associated with poultry, as well as common fecal indicators such as coliforms, enterococci and Escherichia coli. The runoff samples were evaluated from treatments of no litter (control), or the equivalent of 1, 2 or 4 ton/acre of untreated poultry litter. Additionally, runoff samples from treatments of 2 tons/acre of alum-treated litter, 2 tons/acre composted litter and 2 ton/acre deep-stacked litter were compared for bacterial content. Three replicates of the treatments were performed, for a total of 21 test plots. No Campylobacter was isolated from any of the samples and the majority of samples tested negative for Salmonella. Although Salmonella was detected in runoff from many of the plots, it may have originated from sources other than the applied litter (rodents, birds, etc.) since it was detected in two of the unfertilized control plots.
  S. Shrestha , K. Arsi , B.R. Wagle , A.M. Donoghue and D.J. Donoghue
  Background and Objective: Campylobacter is the leading cause of foodborne enteritis worldwide and is primarily caused by consumption/mishandling of contaminated poultry. Probiotic use in poultry has been an effective strategy in reducing many enteric pathogens, but has not demonstrated consistent reduction against Campylobacter. This study was conducted to screen probiotic isolates that could eliminate or reduce cecal Campylobacter counts in poultry. Materials and Methods: As Campylobacter resides and utilizes intestinal mucin for growth, isolates selected on the basis of mucin utilization might be a strategy to screen for probiotic candidates with efficacy against Campylobacter . In this study, bacterial isolates demonstrating increased growth rates in the presence of mucin in media, in vitro were selected for their ability to reduce Campylobacter colonization in 14 day old broiler chickens. In replicate trials, 90 days-of-hatch chicks were randomly divided into 9 treatment groups (n = 10 chicks/treatment) and treated individually with one of four bacterial isolates (Bacillus spp.) grown in media with or without mucin prior to inoculation or a Campylobacter control (Campylobacter , no isolate). In both the trials, all the birds except control were orally gavaged with individual isolates at day-of-hatch. On day 7, all the birds were orally challenged with a four strain mixture of C. jejuni and ceca were collected on day 14 for Campylobacter enumeration. Results: Results from these two trials demonstrated two individual isolates, one isolate incubated with mucin in the media and another isolate incubated without mucin prior to inoculation, consistently reduced cecal Campylobacter counts (1.5-4 log reduction) compared to controls. Conclusion: These results support the potential use of mucin to pre-select isolates for their ability to reduce enteric colonization of Campylobacter in broiler chickens.
  K. Arsi , P.A. Moore Jr. , A.M. Donoghue , M.L. Dirain and D.J. Donoghue
  Background and Objective: Campylobacteriosis is a significant health problem worldwide and poultry are considered as one of the main vehicles of transmission. This study was conducted to determine whether alum reduces Campylobacter colonization in broilers by reducing horizontal transmission between birds or by reducing Campylobacter counts in birds already colonized (Therapeutic efficacy). Materials and Methods: Two replicate experiments were conducted and in each experiment, day of hatch broiler chicks (n = 295) were divided into 7 treatment groups including controls. Each treatment was reared in either no (0 kg), low (0.78 kg m–2) or high (1.58 kg m–2) concentrations of aluminum sulfate (alum; Al+ Clear). During days 7, 14, 28 and 42, ten birds from each treatment were analyzed for Campylobacter counts in the ceca. To evaluate whether alum inhibits horizontal transmission between birds, Campylobacter negative birds were reared with seeder birds that served as carriers. Results: Alum reduced (p<0.05) horizontal transmission of Campylobacter at 14 and 28 days in experiment 1 and only with the highest concentration of alum at 42 days in experiment 2. To evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of alum, all birds were inoculated with Campylobacter (5.2×106 CFU mL–1) prior to placement in pens. Infected birds reared on low or high alum had lower (p<0.05) Campylobacter counts at 14 and 28 days in only 1 of 2 experiments. At 42 days, there were no differences in cecal Campylobacter counts between alum treated and untreated controls in experiment 1 and for only the highest concentration in experiment 2. Conclusion: It appears treating litter with alum is not a consistent way to reduce enteric Campylobacter counts.
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