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Articles by D.J. Arotupin
Total Records ( 5 ) for D.J. Arotupin
  D.J. Arotupin , R.M.O. Kayode and K.O. Awojobi
  Five different commercial poultry feeds namely, broiler finisher, broiler starter, broiler super starter, grower mash and layer top mash obtained from their trade outlets in Akure, Nigeria were examined for their microbiological and physicochemical qualities using standard microbiological and analytical methods. The bacterial count was highest in broiler starter with 2.50H104 cfu mLG1, while the least count of 6.60H102 cfu mLG1 was recorded in layer top mash. Fungal count was highest in layer top mash (7.40H102 sfu mLG1) and least in grower mash (1.50H102 sfu mLG1). A total of seventeen microorganisms were isolated which include Aerobacter aerogenes, Bacillus cereus, Erwinia amylovora, Mirococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigatus, A. niger, Acaulopa macrospore, Cladosporium fulvum, Dotchiza populae, Fusarium sp., Geotrichium candidum, Pleurophrgmium sp., Rhizopus stolonifer, Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Proximate composition revealed the presence of moisture, ash, fat, crude fibre and protein content. The mineral analysis shows that, the poultry feeds contained essential elements, namely K+, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and P. The presence of some pathogenic microorganisms in the poultry feeds lucidly revealed the level of contamination. Therefore, the commercial poultry feeds should be periodically examined for bio safety, so as to reduce or probably prevent the risk of cross contamination of poultry and poultry products.
  D.J. Arotupin and F.A. Akinyosoye
  Sixteen soil samples were collected from four different plots of cassava plantation and analyzed for their microbiological and physicochemical characteristics. A total of twelve microorganisms were isolated consisting four bacteria, seven fungi and one actinomyces. The bacteria were Bacillus cereus, B. megaterium, B. polymyxa, B. subtilis, while the fungi included Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigatus, A. niger, A. repens, Botrytis cinerea, Neurospora sitophila, Varicosporium elodea and Actionmyces reticuli. Plot A recorded the highest microbial counts of 7.95H105 cfu gG1 and 4.18H103 sfu gG1 for bacteria and fungi respectively, while the control (uncultivated soils) had the lowest microbial counts of 1.73H105 cfu gG1 and 1.50H103 sfu gG1 for bacteria and fungi, respectively. Actinomycetes were found only in plots B and D. The colour of the soils varied from black, brownish black, yellowish brown to complete brown, while the texture ranged from very coarse, through granular to very fine. Chemical analysis revealed pH range of 5.67 to 6.70, moisture content of 10.08 to 14.70%, organic matter content of 8.48 to 13.90% oxidizable organic carbon of 0.11 to 0.41% and ash content of 8.37 to 13.40%. Mineral analysis showed the presence of N, P, K+, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+ ppm in varying proportions. Therefore, cassava cultivated soils has not suffered any significant depletion of nutrients.
  B.J. Akinyele , O.O. Olaniyi and D.J. Arotupin
  The ability of Volvariella volvacea to degrade readily available agricultural wastes with associated enzymes under submerged fermentation was the aim of the study. Tissue culture technique was employed in obtaining active mycelium of the mushroom from its fresh fruiting body. Proximate analysis of the agricultural wastes after fermentation revealed that the percentage protein and moisture contents increased while the fat, crude fiber, ash and carbohydrate contents decreased. Analysis of the mineral contents of the wastes revealed a reduction with fermentation. Several types of agro-industrial wastes were evaluated as substrates for enzymes production by Volvariella volvace in comparison to commercial substrates (control). The composition of the wastes was observed to affect the quantity as well as the activity of the enzymes assayed. Sawdust had higher cellulase activity of 122 μmol/min/mL between 48 and 72 h of fermentation.
  D.J. Arotupin , T.B. Fabunmi and R.A.O. Gabriel-Ajobiewe
  The availability of microbial enzymes in addition to its low cost, large production, environmental protection, plasticity and chemical stability, makes them widely used for industrial processes. Agricultural and forestry waste which can serve as substrate in producing biologically important secondary metabolites such as cellular proteins, organic acids, prebiotic, enzymes are economically advantageous due to its low cost and availability. The study investigated and compared the potential of same micorganisms isolated from Cola acuminata husk and testa waste to produce hydrolytic, proteolytic and lipolytic enzymes. The screened enzymes included α-amylase, β-amylase, cellulase, protease and lipases using appropriate procedures, with their activity measured in μmol min–1 mL–1. Microorganisms were isolated using standard microbiological techniques from Cola acuminata husk and testa subjected to liquid state fermentation for 10 days. Thirteen microorgainsms were isolated in all and examined for potentials to produce the named enzymes. The bacterial isolates included; Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus sphaericus, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus laterosporus, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus firmus, Micrococcus luteus and Lactobacillus fermentum. Trichoderma viridiae, Articulospora inflata, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger were the fungal species isolated. The α-amylase, β-amylase and cellulase activity of the bacterial isolates ranged from 0.093±0.006a-0.383±0.015f μmol min–1 mL–1. Protease activity ranged from 1.723±0.147a-3.300±0.170g μmol min–1 mL–1 while the lipase from 1.000±0.160a-1.500±0.200f μmol min–1 mL–1. The activity of the fungal isolates on the other hand ranged from 0.013±0.005a-0.430±0.001e, 2.416±0.313a-10.137±0.083i and 1.000±0.050a-2.267±0.289f μmol min–1 mL–1 for the hydrolytic, proteolytic and lipolytic enzymes respectively. Protease and lipase had highest activity. Bacterial and fungal isolates from the testa showed higher enzymatic activity as compared to same isolates from the husk. Kolanut husk and testa can thus serve as an alternative substrate for microorganisms for the production of the screened enzymes.
  D.J. Arotupin , K.O. Awojobi and R.A.O. Gabriel-Ajobiewe
  The ethanolic, methanolic and water extracts of dried powdered leaves of Trichilia priedreana (Meliaceae) were tested for their antimicrobial activity on selected clinical pathogenic organisms. This was carried out using agar well diffusion method. The methanolic extract was found to be the most potent, followed by the ethanolic extract, while water extract was the least potent. Staphylococcus aureus and Proteus mirabilis were highly susceptible to the methonolic and ethanolic extracts, while all the fungi, Aspergillus flavus, A. niger and Candida albicans were susceptible to the extracts with C. albicans being the most susceptible showing higher zones of inhibition. Extracts of T. priedreana were found to be more active than the standard commercial antibiotics. The MIC of the extracts varied from 1.563 to 12.5 mg mL-1 for the bacteria and 6.25 to 12.5 mg mL-1 for the fungi. The pH values of the extracts ranged from 4.40 to 6.64. Phytochemical screening showed the presence of alkaloids, phlobatannins, tannins and saponins. The yields from the plant leaves are very adequate possessing antimicrobial components comparable to commercial antibiotics, hence can be a good source of agents for chemotherapy.
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