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Articles by D. Ziegler
Total Records ( 5 ) for D. Ziegler
  W. Dinh , R. Futh , M. Lankisch , L. Bansemir , W. Nickl , T. Scheffold , A. Bufe , T. Krahn and D. Ziegler
  Aims: Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction is considered a precursor of diabetic cardiomyopathy, while diabetic cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy is associated with an increased risk of mortality. This study aimed to evaluate the association between left ventricular diastolic dysfunction and cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy, both diagnosed according to the current guidelines. Methods: We evaluated 145 patients referred for an elective coronary angiography, 52 of whom had Type 2 diabetes and 48 had impaired glucose tolerance, while 45 subjects had normal glucose tolerance. Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy was diagnosed using autonomic function tests, while left ventricular diastolic dysfunction was verified by tissue Doppler imaging echocardiography. Results: Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy was diagnosed in 15 (28.8%) patients with Type 2 diabetes and in six (12.5%) individuals with impaired glucose tolerance. The rates of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction were 81 and 33% in patients with and without cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy, respectively (P < 0.001). In the cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy group (n = 21), early diastolic relaxation velocity (Em) was significantly reduced (5.4 ± 0.9 vs. 7.3 ± 2.1 cm/s; P < 0.001) and the E/Em ratio was significantly higher (13.6 ± 4.6 vs. 10.3 ± 3.4 cm/s, P < 0.001) as compared with the group without cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (n = 79). These findings remained significant after adjustment for age, sex, coronary artery disease, hypertension and HbA1c. A severe form of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction was observed in 33 and 15% of patients with and without cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy, respectively (P = 0.001). Conclusion: Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy is associated with a higher prevalence and a more severe form of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in patients with diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance undergoing coronary angiography. Because both cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy and left ventricular diastolic dysfunction are associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, screening for patients with left ventricular diastolic dysfunction and cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy with diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance may identify those at high risk.
  A. I. Vinik , R. E. Maser and D. Ziegler
  It has long been recognized that cardiac autonomic neuropathy increases morbidity and mortality in diabetes and may have greater predictive power than traditional risk factors for cardiovascular events. Significant morbidity and mortality can now be attributable to autonomic imbalance between the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system regulation of cardiovascular function. New and emerging syndromes include orthostatic tachycardia, orthostatic bradycardia and an inability to use heart rate as a guide to exercise intensity because of the resting tachycardia. Recent studies have shown that autonomic imbalance may be a predictor of risk of sudden death with intensification of glycaemic control. This review examines an association of autonomic dysregulation and the role of inflammatory cytokines and adipocytokines that promote cardiovascular risk. In addition, conditions of autonomic imbalance associated with cardiovascular risk are discussed. Potential treatment for restoration of autonomic balance is outlined.
  D. Ziegler , N. Papanas and M. Roden
  Aims  To examine the sensitivity and specificity of three cut-off points of Neuropad for the diagnosis of distal symmetric polyneuropathy and small-fibre dysfunction in patients within the first year after diagnosis of diabetes.

Methods  Neuropad results were read at 10, 15 and 20 min and evaluated for diagnostic utility in distal symmetric polyneuropathy confirmed by electrophysiology and small-fibre dysfunction in 52 patients with Type 1 diabetes and 99 patients with Type 2 diabetes.

Results  The prevalence of distal symmetric polyneuropathy was 15.4% in Type 1 diabetes and 43.4% in Type 2 diabetes, while that of small-fibre dysfunction was 9.6 and 31.3%, respectively. Sensitivity of Neuropad for the diagnosis of distal symmetric polyneuropathy and small-fibre dysfunction was highest in Type 1 diabetes for the 10-min threshold reaching 87.5 and 80.0%, respectively, while it was modestly high in Type 2 diabetes at 65.1 and 67.7%, respectively. Specificity in both diabetes types was modest for the 10-min threshold (44.7-48.2%). It was highest for the 20-min threshold (83.8-89.3%) at the cost of poor sensitivity at 12.5-34.9%. Negative predictive values were relatively high for all three cut-off points in both types of diabetes (64.1-97.1%) at the cost of poor positive predictive values at 12.5-71.4%.

Conclusions  In patients within the first year after diagnosis of diabetes, the 10-min cut-off for Neuropad provides a relatively high sensitivity and modest specificity for distal symmetric polyneuropathy and small-fibre dysfunction, rendering the test more suitable as a screening tool than the 15- and 20-min cut-offs.

  N. Papanas , A. J. M. Boulton , R. A. Malik , C. Manes , O. Schnell , V. Spallone , N. Tentolouris , S. Tesfaye , P. Valensi , D. Ziegler and P. Kempler
  A simple non-invasive indicator test (Neuropad®) has been developed for the assessment of sweating and, hence, cholinergic innervation in the diabetic foot. The present review summarizes current knowledge on this diagnostic test. The diagnostic ability of this test is based on a colour change from blue to pink at 10 min, with excellent reproducibility, which lends itself to patient self-examination. It has a high sensitivity (65.1-100%) and negative predictive value (63-100%), with moderate specificity (32-78.5%) and positive predictive value (23.3-93.2%) for the diagnosis of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. It also has moderate to high sensitivity (59.1-89%) and negative predictive value (64.7-91%), but low to moderate specificity (27-78%) and positive predictive value (24-48.6%) for the diagnosis of diabetic cardiac autonomic neuropathy. There are some data to suggest that Neuropad can detect early diabetic neuropathy, but this needs further evaluation. It remains to be established whether this test can predict foot ulceration and amputation, thereby contributing to the identification of high-risk patients.
  R. A. Malik , S. Tesfaye and D. Ziegler
  Lower extremity amputation is a common and disabling complication of Type 2 diabetes. Whilst the introduction of specialist multidisciplinary teams has led to a reduction in the incidence of lower extremity amputation in some centres, the overall prevalence of diabetes-related amputation has actually increased in recent decades. The aetiology of diabetes-related amputation is complex, with neuropathy, macrovascular and microvascular disease contributing significantly. Ulceration, previous amputation, increasing diabetes duration and poor long-term control of glycaemia and lipids are important risk factors for amputation in populations with diabetes. Major randomized intervention trials of blood glucose-lowering or anti-hypertensive therapies in populations with diabetes have shown limited reductions in neuropathy and/or macrovascular disease, and no benefit on amputation rates. In contrast, a recent analysis from the Fenofibrate Intervention and Event Lowering in Diabetes (FIELD) study showed a significantly reduced rate of minor, but not major amputations in patients with Type 2 diabetes treated with fenofibrate. Mechanistic studies are clearly needed to understand the basis of this benefit.
 
 
 
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