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Articles by D. Zhang
Total Records ( 7 ) for D. Zhang
  M. Y. Kan , D. Z. Zhou , D. Zhang , Z. Zhang , Z. Chen , Y. F. Yang , X. Z. Guo , H. Xu , L. He and Y. Liu
  Aims  To investigate the two variants (rs1387153 and rs10830963) near/in the melatonin receptor 1B gene (MTNR1B) and to determine their association with Type 2 diabetes, as well as with the regulation of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) in Han Chinese subjects.

Methods  The two variants were genotyped in 1912 unrelated Type 2 diabetic patients and 2041 healthy individuals. Association with Type 2 diabetes was calculated by logistic regression with adjustments for sex, age and body mass index. The possible connection between the risk alleles and FPG was analysed by multiple linear regression.

Results  The two polymorphisms were associated with FPG levels in the healthy individuals (P = 0.003 and P = 0.002, respectively), and the G allele of rs10830963 was also associated with an increased risk of Type 2 diabetes in our patient sample (odds ratio, 1.12; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.23; P = 0.024). Moreover, the linkage disequilibrium degree of two single nucleotide polymorphisms was high (r2 = 0.66), which is similar to that of Europeans.

Conclusions  The common variant in MTNR1B confers the risk of Type 2 diabetes and modulates FPG in both the Han Chinese and European populations.

  Y Yang , X Li , L Cui , M Fu , A. B Rabie and D. Zhang

Mechanical stress induces human periodontal ligament (PDL) cells to express an osteoblastic phenotype in vitro. Core binding factor a1 (CBFA1) is a key regulator of osteoblast differentiation. This study was designed to investigate the role of CBFA1 in alveolar bone remodelling, specifically the expression of CBFA1 messenger RNA (mRNA) in human PDL cells under mechanical stress and its up- and downstream relationships with other bone remodelling markers. Cultured human PDL cells were exposed to mechanical stress. The expressions of CBFA1 and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteopontin (OPN), osteoprotegrin (OPG), and receptor activator nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL) were detected before and after RNA interference (RNAi) of CBFA1. The data were analysed using a t-test and one-way analysis of variance.

After mechanical stress loading, CBFA1 mRNA expression was raised initially, followed by an increased expression of ALP and RANKL, decreased expression of OPG, and a change in OPN expression. After CBFA1 knock-down in human PDL cells by small hairpin (sh) RNA, the expression of ALP, OPN, OPG, and RANKL also changed. These findings suggest that in the present model system CBFA1 may play an important role in PDL-mediated bone remodelling in response to mechanical stimulation. Mechanical stress: CBFA1–ALP and OPG–PDL homeostasis may be one of the signal transduction pathways of human PDL cell differentiation under mechanical stress without exclusion of the involvement of other pathways.

  Y. Wang , T .L.X. Yang and D. Zhang
  Organizing Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) into clusters enables the efficient utilization of the limited energy resources of the deployed sensor nodes. However, the problem of unbalanced energy consumption exists and it is tightly bound to the role and to the location of a particular node in the network. The so-called hot spot occurs when cluster heads closer to the sink node are burdened with heavier relay traffic and tend to die much faster. To mitigate or avoid the problem, the Partition Energy Balanced and Efficient Clustering Scheme (PEBECS) has been proposed, which divides the entire WSN into several equal partitions reasonably and groups the nodes into clusters of unequal sizes. Cluster heads in these partitions closer to the sink node have smaller cluster sizes than those farther, thus they can preserve some energy for the inter-cluster communications. Further, the cluster heads are elected by using a node-weight heuristic algorithm, where the node`s residual energy, the node`s degree difference and the relative location in WSN are considered, such that more balanced load is achieved. Simulation results show that PEBECS outperforms significantly in optimizing the cluster heads` energy consumption, balancing the nodes` energy consumption, prolonging the network lifetime and improving the network scalability.
  Y. Wang , T. Liang , X. Yang and D. Zhang
  In this study, we develop and analyze the Cluster Based Location-Aware Routing Protocol for Large Scale Heterogeneous Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (CBLARHM), a low-complexity routing algorithm for mobile ad hoc networks (MANET). CBLARHM runs on top of an adaptive cluster cover of the network, which can be created and maintained using, for instance, the weight-based distributed algorithm. The weighted clustering algorithm we proposed takes into consideration node degree difference, battery power, average link stability and average dependency probability of mobile nodes. The hierarchical structure stabilizes the end-to-end communication paths and improves the networks scalability such that the routing overhead does not become tremendous in large scale MANET. Furthermore, it is fascinating and important to investigate that how to control the total number of nodes involved in a routing establishment process so as to improve the network layer performance of MANET. CBLARHM is to use geographical location information provided by Global Position System (GPS) to assist routing. The location information of destination node is used to predict a smaller rectangle, isosceles triangle, or circle request zone, which is selected according to the relative location of the source and the destination, that covers the estimated region the destination may locates. Thus, instead of searching the route in the entire network blindly, CBLARHM confines the route searching space into a much smaller estimated range. Simulation results have shown that CBLARHM outperforms other protocols significantly in route setup time, routing overhead, mean delay and packet collision and simultaneously maintains low average end-to-end delay, high success delivery ratio, low control overhead, as well as low route discovery frequency.
  J. Yang and D. Zhang
  In this study, a novel energy-balancing unequal clustering protocol (EB-UCP) for wireless sensor networks is presented. EB-UCP achieves a good performance in terms of lifetime by unequal clustering and balancing the energy load among all the nodes. An unequal clustering algorithm from probability view is employed to form clusters. Clusters closer to the sink node have smaller sizes than those farther away from the sink node, thus cluster heads closer to the sink node can preserve more energy for the purpose of inter-cluster data forwarding. In addition, the distribution of sensor nodes is deployed according to the energy-balancing layered algorithm and therefore the energy consumption in every layer is nearly equal. Finally, an energy-efficient data transmission mechanism on basis of the above is proposed. Simulation studies show that EB-UCP leads to more uniform energy dissipation and enlarges the lifetime of networks than EEUC (Energy Efficient Unequal Clustering) and LEACH (Low-Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy).
  B.P. Wang , D. Zhang , Y.Y. Liu , F. Wang , S.Y. Wang , L.D. Han , C.Y. Liu , C.X. Liu , J.P. Liu , J. Pan , W.B. Zhang , Tuo Ya , Zhaori Getu , Daolema , C.H. Huang , J.L. Han , Suya , L.G. Zhang , H.M. Zhou and L. Zhang
  The current study investigated the ovarian response to gonadotropin for establishing a suitable protocol of superovulation in Bactrian camel. Fifteen female camels were randomly divided into 4 groups to compare 4 different superovulation protocols during the natural breeding season. Each camel in 4 groups was injected with FSH at 80, 80, 60, 60, 60, 60, 40 and 40 mg, respectively total dosage of 480 mg, for consecutive 4 days at 12 h intervals. The camels in group 2-4 were naturally mated and subsequently injected 300 IU LH 48 h after the last injection of FSH, the camels in group 1 received the same procedure exception of LH injection. Ovarian follicles and corpora luteas were observed through synchronistic laparotomy 7-9 days after natural mating. The results indicated that there is no significant difference in average ovulation rate (p>0.05) among group 1-3 nor among group 2-4. However, there is considerable difference between group 1 and 4 in average ovulation rate (p<0.05), among which the value is highest (81.38±6.44%) for group 4 but lowest (16.89±7.98%) for group 1. Furthermore, the average number of follicles has yet no obvious difference (p>0.05) among group 1-3 nor among group 2-4 but significant difference (p<0.05) between group 1 and 4. Comparatively the animals in group 1 yielded highest average number of follicles (9.80±1.50). Conclusively, the protocol 4 had a best superovulatory effect with an average corpora lutea 9.33±1.45 and therefore it can be used for superovulation in camels.
  A. Mermoud , J. M. F. Martins , D. Zhang and A. C. Favre
  Soil sorption processes largely control the environmental fate of herbicides. Therefore, accuracy of sorption parameters is crucial for accurate prediction of herbicide mobility in agricultural soils. A combined experimental and statistical study was performed to investigate the small-scale spatial variability of sorption parameters for atrazine and dinoseb in soils and to establish the number of samples needed to provide a value of the distribution coefficient (Kd) next to the mean, with a given precision. The study explored sorption properties of the two herbicides in subsurface samples collected from four pits distributed along a transect of an alluvial soil; two to four samples were taken at about 30 cm apart at each sampling location. When considering all the data, the distribution coefficients were found to be normally and log-normally distributed for atrazine and dinoseb, respectively; the CVs were relatively high (close to 50% for dinoseb and 40% for atrazine). When analyzed horizon by horizon, the data revealed distribution coefficients normally distributed for both herbicides, whatever the soil layer, with lower CVs. The Kd values were shown to vary considerably between samples collected at very short distance (a few centimeters), suggesting that taking a single soil sample to determine sorption properties through batch experiments can lead to highly unrepresentative results and to poor sorption/mobility predictions.
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