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Articles by D. White
Total Records ( 2 ) for D. White
  A. H. Sam , M. Busbridge , A. Amin , L. Webber , D. White , S. Franks , N. M. Martin , M. Sleeth , N. A. Ismail , N. Mat Daud , D. Papamargaritis , C. W. Le Roux , R. S. Chapman , G. Frost , S. R. Bloom and K. G. Murphy


Increased body iron is associated with insulin resistance. Hepcidin is the key hormone that negatively regulates iron homeostasis. We hypothesized that individuals with insulin resistance have inadequate hepcidin levels for their iron load.


Serum concentrations of the active form of hepcidin (hepcidin-25) and hepcidin:ferritin ratio were evaluated in participants with Type 2 diabetes (n = 33, control subjects matched for age, gender and BMI, n = 33) and participants with polycystic ovary syndrome (n = 27, control subjects matched for age and BMI, n = 16). To investigate whether any changes observed were associated with insulin resistance rather than insulin deficiency or hyperglycaemia per se, the same measurements were made in participants with Type 1 diabetes (n = 28, control subjects matched for age, gender and BMI, n = 30). Finally, the relationship between homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and serum hepcidin:ferritin ratio was explored in overweight or obese participants without diabetes (n = 16).


Participants with Type 2 diabetes had significantly lower hepcidin and hepcidin:ferritin ratio than control subjects (< 0.05 and < 0.01, respectively). Participants with polycystic ovary syndrome had a significantly lower hepcidin:ferritin ratio than control subjects (< 0.05). There was no significant difference in hepcidin or hepcidin:ferritin ratio between participants with Type 1 diabetes and control subjects (= 0.88 and = 0.94). Serum hepcidin:ferritin ratio inversely correlated with homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (r = -0.59, P < 0.05).


Insulin resistance, but not insulin deficiency or hyperglycaemia per se, is associated with inadequate hepcidin levels. Reduced hepcidin concentrations may cause increased body iron stores in insulin-resistant states.

  R. Maharaj , C. Maharaj , D. White , C. Penjilia and S. Ramlagan
  The purpose of this study was to optimize the relative proportions of the input ingredients of clay, sand and water utilized in a formulation by a leading hollow core clay brick manufacturer in Trinidad as a possible solution for the incidence of production of defective products. The influence of incremental changes in the proportions of ingredients on important physical characteristics of clay bricks such as compressive strength, extruded surface finish, flexural strength, shrinkage, density and extrusion pressure and the rheological properties of dynamic modulus (G*) and phase angle (δ) were investigated before the firing stage. The optimum formulation was found to be the addition of an additional 5% clay content to the manufacturer’s original mixture utilizing with a water/clay ratio of 16% composition. Further research is recommended on optimization of the firing process by testing fired properties with these optimum ingredients.
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