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Articles by D. Sharma
Total Records ( 4 ) for D. Sharma
  H. Das , S.U. Ahmed , S.K. Shukla , S. Shukla , A. Latif and D. Sharma
  Mastitis represents a failure of innate immune mechanism of udder teat canal epithelial cells and peripheral PMN cells, whose cationic peptides constituted innate immunity. An attempt was made to examine in the year 2007, the actual presence of β-defensins peptides in milk of mastitis-affected buffalo (Bubalus bubalis), due to lack of such information. AU-PAGE revealed higher frequency and density of the peptides in case of mastitis milk as compared to normal milk sample, particularly in the most cationic zone with highest electrophoretic mobility or lower molecular weight region. These low molecular peptides were also separated out using 10 kDa cut-off membrane ultra filtration, which was subsequently examined for in vitro antibacterial sensitivity and subjected to SDS-PAGE and low molecular weight zone was further subjected to MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, which identified the most anodic two peptides of about 5 kDa as β-defensin viz. The LAP (lingual antibiotic peptide) and BNBD-2 (bovine neutrophil beta-defensin-2) based on amino acid sequences unlike that of healthy buffalo milk. Sequence homology studies also supported mass spectrometry data as both the peptides shared 100 and 98.5% identities with cattle β-defensins, respectively. Antibacterial assay against S. aureus and E. coli revealed significant activity of these peptides against both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms at 10 μg concentration. It is concluded that expression of β-defensin peptides in ductal epithelium were induced in mastitis and these defensin peptides were also released into the milk.
  S.R. Upadhyay , K.B. Koirala , D.C. Paudel , S.N. Sah , D. Sharma , D.B. Gurung , R.C. Prasad , R.B. Katuwal , B.B. Pokhrel , R.K. Mahato , R. Dhakal , N.B. Dhami , T.P. Tiwari , G. Ortiz- Ferrara and R.C. Sharma

This study was conducted in the hills of Nepal in four years to determine performance stability of open pollinated QPM genotypes in comparison to open pollinated cultivars of normal maize. Replicated field experiments were conducted in 29 environments using 20 QPM and seven normal maize genotypes. The normal maize genotypes included released cultivars, advanced breeding lines, one improved (Manakamana-3) and one local check (farmers` variety). Grain yield, days to flowering, plant and ear height, prolificacy, husk cover tightness and plant and ear aspect were analyzed. Stability and genotype superiority for grain yield was determined using genotype and genotypexenvironment (GGE) biplot analysis that compares among a set of genotypes with a reference ideal genotype, which will have the highest average value of all genotypes and be absolutely stable. The highest yielding QPM genotype in each year had significantly higher grain yield than the local check and higher or comparable yield to the improved check. Across years, many QPM genotypes produced significantly higher grain yield than the local check. Two genotypes (S03TLWQ-AB-01 and Obatampa) produced significantly higher grain yield than the improved check. GGE-biplot analysis showed that five of the seven most superior genotypes for grain yield were QPM (S03TLWQ-AB-01, Obatampa, S01SIYQ S99TLWQ-HG-AB and S99TLWQ-HG-A). Deuti and Manakamana-3 were the most superior among the normal maize cultivars. These genotypes also had acceptable to superior agronomic traits. Grain yield showed significant positive correlation with plant and ear height and prolificacy. The results show that superior open pollinated QPM genotypes were comparable to the outstanding cultivars of normal maize in performance stability and agronomic traits. The findings of this study provide new information on stability of the open pollinated QPM genotypes tested across warm rainfed hill environments. These cultivars are also adapted to other developing countries and this information could be useful for international and national QPM improvement programs.

  D. Sharma , B. Sharma and A.K. Shukla
  Lipases (Triacylglycerol acylhydrolases E.C. are ubiquitous enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of triacylglycerols to glycerols and free fatty acids. Lipolytic reactions occur at the lipid-water interface, where lipolytic substrates usually form equilibrium between monomeric, micellar and emulsified states. Due to their high enantioselective and regioselective nature, lipases have been utilized for the resolution of chiral drugs (Flurbiprofen, Naproxen, Ibuprofen and Suprofen) fat modification, fragrance development in dairy product and for the synthesis of personal care product and cosmetics. In addition to these, lipases find use in variety of biotechnological fields such as cheese ripening, detergent, biosurfactant, bioremediation, polymer synthesis, agrochemicals and perfumery and in paper and pulp industry. Lipases are also being used for the development of biosensors for the qualitative determination of triacylglycerols. Nowadays, novel lipases are being developed by site directed mutagenesis and recombinant DNA technology to improve their selectivity and stability.
  D. Sharma , I. Rawat and H.C. Goel
  The GI tract of an individual which is inhabited by a large number of microbes, is under constant threat from pathogens and oxidative damage. In Indian system of medicine, several cucurbits have been widely documented for prophylactic and therapeutic purposes to ameliorate such situations. The total flavonoids, observed in the extract of three cucurbits, Lagenaria siceraria (Ls), Luffa cylindrica (Lc) and Cucurbita pepo (Cp), were 17.9±1.3, 6.3±0.2 and 2.1±0.5 mg g-1, respectively. The antioxidant activity, determined by DPPH assay, displayed that Ls, Cp and Lc had 77±1.3, 10±3 and 10±1.0% free radical scavenging activity, respectively. Reduction Potential (RP) assay revealed the antioxidant effects for Ls, Lc and Cp as 44±0.8, 22±.3 and 15±.8%, respectively. Maximum activity of quenching H2O2 was demonstrated by Lc (92±1%) as compared to Cp (78±2%) and Ls (76±1.6%). Antimicrobial activity of Lactobacillus rhamnosus measured through generation of inhibition zone against E. coli was augmented maximally in presence of Ls (4.4±0.3 cm), followed by Cp (4.2±.01 cm) and Lc (4.0±.03 cm). Biofilm formation by L. rhamnosus was maximally supported in presence of Lc (absorbance = 0.26±0) followed by Ls (0.21±.01) and Cp (0.20±.01). Thus, these dietary cucurbits showed appreciable antioxidant activity and enhance antimicrobial and barrier function of mucosa by L. rhamnosus and impart protection to gut without any toxic effects.
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