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Articles by D. Mataix Cols
Total Records ( 3 ) for D. Mataix Cols
  A. C Iervolino , N Perroud , M. A Fullana , M Guipponi , L Cherkas , D. A Collier and D. Mataix Cols
 

OBJECTIVE: Compulsive hoarding is a serious health problem for the sufferers, their families, and the community at large. It appears to be highly prevalent and to run in families. However, this familiality could be due to genetic or environmental factors. This study examined the prevalence and heritability of compulsive hoarding in a large sample of twins. METHOD: A total of 5,022 twins completed a validated measure of compulsive hoarding. The prevalence of severe hoarding was determined using empirically derived cutoffs. Genetic and environmental influences on compulsive hoarding were estimated using liability threshold models, and maximum-likelihood univariate model-fitting analyses were employed to decompose the variance in the liability to compulsive hoarding into additive genetic and shared and nonshared environmental factors (female twins only; N=4,355). RESULTS: A total of 2.3% of twins met criteria for caseness, with significantly higher rates observed for male (4.1%) than for female (2.1%) twins. Model-fitting analyses in female twins showed that genetic factors accounted for approximately 50% of the variance in compulsive hoarding, with nonshared environmental factors and measurement error accounting for the other half. CONCLUSIONS: Compulsive hoarding is highly prevalent and heritable, at least in women, with nonshared environmental factors also likely to play an important role.

  J Radua and D. Mataix Cols
 

Background

Specific cortico-striato-thalamic circuits are hypothesised to mediate the symptoms of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD), but structural neuroimaging studies have been inconsistent.

Aims

To conduct a meta-analysis of published and unpublished voxel-based morphometry studies in OCD.

Method

Twelve data-sets comprising 401 people with OCD and 376 healthy controls met inclusion criteria. A new improved voxel-based meta-analytic method, signed differential mapping (SDM), was developed to examine regions of increased and decreased grey matter volume in the OCD group v. control group.

Results

No between-group differences were found in global grey matter volumes. People with OCD had increased regional grey matter volumes in bilateral lenticular nuclei, extending to the caudate nuclei, as well as decreased volumes in bilateral dorsal medial frontal/anterior cingulate gyri. A descriptive analysis of quartiles, a sensitivity analysis as well as analyses of subgroups further confirmed these findings. Meta-regression analyses showed that studies that included individuals with more severe OCD were significantly more likely to report increased grey matter volumes in the basal ganglia. No effect of current antidepressant treatment was observed.

Conclusions

The results support a dorsal prefrontal–striatal model of the disorder and raise the question of whether functional alterations in other brain regions commonly associated with OCD, such as the orbitofrontal cortex, may reflect secondary compensatory strategies. Whether the reported differences between participants with OCD and controls precede the onset of the symptoms and whether they are specific to OCD remains to be established.

  N Micali , I Heyman , M Perez , K Hilton , E Nakatani , C Turner and D. Mataix Cols
 

Background

Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) often starts in childhood and adolescence and can be a chronic disorder with high persistence rates. There are few prospective long-term follow-up studies.

Aims

To follow up young people with OCD to clarify persistence rates and relevant predictors, presence of other psychiatric disorders, functional impairment, service utilisation and perceived treatment needs.

Method

All young people with OCD assessed over 9 years at the National and Specialist Paediatric OCD clinic, Maudsley Hospital, London, were included. Sixty-one per cent (142 of 222) of all contactable young people and parents completed computerised diagnostic interviews and questionnaires.

Results

We found a persistence rate of OCD of 41%; 40% of participants had a psychiatric diagnosis other than OCD at follow-up. The main predictor for persistent OCD was duration of illness at assessment. High levels of baseline psychopathology predicted other psychiatric disorders at follow-up. Functional impairment and quality of life were mildly to moderately affected. Approximately 50% of participants were still receiving treatment and about 50% felt a need for further treatment.

Conclusions

This study confirms that paediatric OCD can be a chronic condition that persists into adulthood. Early recognition and treatment might prevent chronicity. Important challenges for services are ensuring adequate treatment and a smooth transition from child to adult services.

 
 
 
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