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Articles by D. Lee
Total Records ( 2 ) for D. Lee
  K. M Harris , K. M Perreira and D. Lee
 

Objective  To trace how racial/ethnic and immigrant disparities in body mass index (BMI) change over time as adolescents (age, 11-19 years) transition to young adulthood (age, 20-28 years).

Design  We used growth curve modeling to estimate the pattern of change in BMI from adolescence through the transition to adulthood.

Setting  All participants in the study were residents of the United States enrolled in junior high school or high school during the 1994-1995 school year.

Participants  More than 20 000 adolescents from nationally representative data interviewed at wave I (1994-1995) and followed up in wave II (1996) and III (2001-2002) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health when the sample was in early adulthood.

Main Exposures  Race/ethnicity, immigrant generation, and sex.

Outcome Measure  Body mass index.

Results  Findings indicate significant differences in both the level and change in BMI across age by sex, race/ethnicity, and immigrant generation. Females, second- and third-generation immigrants, and Hispanic and black individuals experience more rapidly increasing BMIs from adolescence into young adulthood. Increases in BMI are relatively lower for males, first-generation immigrants, and white and Asian individuals.

Conclusion  Disparities in BMI and prevalence of overweight and obesity widen with age as adolescents leave home and begin independent lives as young adults in their 20s.

  J. Kwon , J. Park , D. Lee , Y.S. Kim and H.J. Jeong
  Toll-like receptor (TLR) is known to be a mediator of innate immunity, but recent reports have shown that TLR provides a link to adaptive immunity involved in allograft rejection. To explore the expression patterns in various conditions of renal transplantation, we examined TLR subunit mRNA expressions in renal allograft biopsies of acute rejection (AR; n = 11), chronic rejection (CR; n = 15), chronic cyclosporine nephrotoxicity (CsAN; n = 22), and immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN; n = 9) patients. Control tissues (n = 7) were obtained from normal renal cortical tissue of renal cell carcinoma patients. The diagnosis was made according to the Banff 97 classification. The expressions of TLR 2, 3, 4, and 9 mRNA were analyzed by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using SYBR green. Statistical analysis was performed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Student t test. TLR 2 and 3 mRNA expressions were not significantly different in any group (P > .05). In contrast, TLR 4 mRNA expression was significantly increased in all allograft groups compared with that of controls, and significantly higher in the CsAN than other transplant groups (P < .05). TLR 9 mRNA expression was up-regulated in CsAN and IgAN compared with AR and CR (P < .05). These results suggested that TLR4 mRNA expression was increased in renal allograft patients with chronic allograft dysfunction. Further studies are needed to correlate TLR subtypes with various causes of graft dysfunction among renal allograft patients.
 
 
 
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