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Articles by D. Kumar
Total Records ( 9 ) for D. Kumar
  A. Jain , D. S. Gour , P. S. Bisen , P. P. Dubey , Prashant , D. K. Sharma , A. Bhargava , B. K. Joshi and D. Kumar
  Alpha-lactalbumin (α-LA) (ALA), one of the two major whey proteins, is strongly correlated with the nutritional value and the functional properties of whey and whey products. The genetic variations of ALA gene in Jakhrana Goat breed (Capra hircus) were investigated using an optimized non-radioactive polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) analysis of four amplified fragments covering all four exons of the gene. A total of eight SSCPs patterns were detected in three of these exons in a sample of 50 Jakhrana goats, indicating that this breed has high genetic variability in the ALA gene. This result opens interesting prospects for future breeding programs and conservation strategies. These ALA gene variants can be sequenced and screened in the entire population to develop single nucleotide polymorphisms for association studies with different productive and reproductive performances and marker assisted selection. In addition, our data show that PCR-SSCP is an appropriate tool for evaluating genetic variability.
  D. Kumar , J.P. Pandey , A.K. Sinha , S. Salaj , P.K. Mishra and B.C. Prasad
  The Antheraea mylitta produces tasar silk having massive demand in international market. Its rearing is carried out in outdoor conditions and during course of I to III instar rearing, a major proportion (20-30%) of larvae die due to vagaries of nature, pests and predators etc. which considerably affects the production and productivity. The solution to this major bottleneck of the silkworm rearing lies in evolving a suitable tasar silkworm feed (semi-synthetic diet) for young age tasar silkworm. In present study, comparative evaluation was done among semi-synthetic diet fed; fresh leaf fed indoor reared and fresh leaf fed in natural outdoor reared insects. Data revealed that young age survival and Effective Rate of Rearing (ERR) were higher when larvae were brushed on semi-synthetic diet in contrast to indoor rearing on fresh leaf and complete outdoor rearing. Semi-synthetic diet fed larvae showed greater body weight and their cocoon showed higher weight, shell weight and shell ratio than controls. Concentration of hemolymph protein was slightly higher in semi-synthetic diet fed than outdoor reared larvae whereas, significantly lower in case of indoor reared. Hemolymph protein SDS-PAGE analysis indicates that, the semi-synthetic diet fed larvae is closer to complete outdoor reared larvae than indoor reared. Comparative assessment of rearing, cocoon trait and biomolecular profile of A. mylitta it is assumed that tasar feed developed by our laboratory is novel. It will be helpful in minimizing impact of unfavorable condition during I crop rearing and maintenance of precious eco-races stocks to enhance productivity of tasar silk.
  R.A. Ahmad , Amarpal , P. Kinjavdekar , H.P. Aithal , A.M. Pawde and D. Kumar
  The study was conducted to evaluate and compare sedation, analgesia and muscle relaxation, and other systemic changes produced by dexmedetomidine, dexmedetomidine-midazolam and dexmedetomidine-midazolam-fentanyl in 12 apparently healthy adult dogs divided into three groups (n = 4). In a prospective randomised blinded study, the dogs received 20 μg kg-1 dexmedetomidine (group A), 20 μg kg-1 dexmedetomidine and 0.2 mg kg-1 midazolam (group B), and 20 μg kg-1 dexmedetomidine, 0.2 mg kg-1 midazolam and 4 μg kg-1 fentanyl (group C), through intramuscular route. All the drugs were given simultaneously using separate syringes. Dexmedetomidine produced moderate sedation and muscle relaxation and mild to moderate analgesia with mild depression of laryngeal reflex. Addition of midazolam resulted in excellent muscle relaxation, deep sedation and moderate analgesia with moderate depression of laryngeal reflex. Weak time and down time were decreased whereas time to return of righting reflex and recovery time were increased. Heart rate, respiratory rate and rectal temperature and pulse oximeter values did not differ significantly between groups A and B. Addition of fentanyl further accentuated muscle relaxation, analgesia and produced deep sedation and allowed easy intubation without any further depression of clinical parameters. It reduced the onset time and increased recovery time further. It was concluded that addition of midazolam enhances the sedation and muscle relaxation produced by dexmedetomidine. The combination of fentanyl-dexmedetomidine-midazolam results in excellent analgesia, sedation and muscle relaxation with favourable conditions for intubation which may be used to perform diagnostic or minor surgical operations in dog.
  D. Kumar , J.P. Pandey , J. Jain , P.K. Mishra and B.C. Prasad
  In the present study, quantitative and qualitative changes in protein profile of different tissue of larvae, pupae, adult and eggs of Tasar silkworm Antheraea mylitta Drury was investigated. Stage and age dependent variation in protein concentration and SDS-PAGE protein profile of 36 and 64 kDa protein was observed in different tissue. The concentration of protein was recorded higher in eggs laid by fresh moth than 3 days old moth and significant variation was also noticed in normal and depressed eggs. Interestingly, substantial changes in SDS-PAGE protein profile was observed in normal and depressed eggs and eggs laid by fresh moth than 3 days old moth. Haemolymph and midgut protein concentration was recorded higher in 3rd and 5th instar feeding larvae and in 4th instar mature larvae. Concentration of protein in the haemolymph of pupae before the brain window becomes opaque was higher in both the sexes than opaque stage. Fat body protein concentration in larvae showed increasing trend from 3rd to 5th instar larvae and it was higher in pupae after the brain window becomes opaque and fresh moth. In addition, higher protein concentration was recorded in gonads of pupae after the brain window becomes opaque and in reproductive organs of fresh moth. Present findings would promote to further understand the precise reason for depression of eggs and changes in protein profile in different tissue of A. mylitta.
  D. Kumar , A. Syamal and L. K. Sharma
  A new monobasic bidentate ON donor Schiff base PS-LH2 (where PS-LH2 = polystyrene-anchored Schiff base obtained by condensation of chloromethylated polystyrene (containing 1.17 mmol of chlorine per gram of resin cross-linked with 2% divinylbenzene), 2-hydroxy-1-naphaldehyde and 4-aminosalicylic acid has been synthesized. PS-LH2 reacts with metal complexes to form polystyrene-anchored complexes: PS-LHM(CH3Coo) · DMF (where M = Cu, Zn, Cd, UO2), PS-LHZr(OH)2(CH3Coo) · 2DMF, PS-LHFeCl2 · 2DMF, PS-LHM'(CH3Coo) · 3DMF (where M' = Mn and Ni) and PS-LHMoo2(acac), where acacH = acetylacetone. The polystyrene-anchored complexes have been characterized by elemental analysis, IR, ESR and magnetic susceptibility measurements. The per cent reaction conversion of PS-LH2 to polystyrene supported coordination compounds lies between 30-95. Shifts of the azomethine ν(C=N) and phenolic ν(C-O) stretches are indicative of ON donor behaviour of the polystyrene-anchored ligands. The complexes, PS-LHCu(CH3Coo) · DMF, PS-LHFecl2 · 2DMF, PS-LHMn(CH3Coo) · 3DMF and PS-LHNi(CH3Coo) · 3DMF are paramagnetic, while PS-LHZn(CH3Coo) · DMF, PS-LHCd(CH3COO) · DMF, PS-LHUo2(CH3Coo) · DMF, PS-LHZr(OH)2(CH3COO) · 2DMF and PS-LHMoO2(acac) are diamagnetic. The copper(II) complex exhibits a square planar structure, zinc(II) and cadmium(II) complexes have tetrahedral structures, nickel(II), manganese(II), iron(III), dioxomolybdenum(VI) and dioxouranium(VI) complexes have octahedral structure and zirconium(IV) complex is pentagonal bipyramidal.
  G. Kalpana and D. Kumar
  The performance of wireless networks is highly dependent on the amount of interference experienced by the wireless links. Wireless networks suffer much from interference due to simultaneous traffic flows due to the shared nature of the wireless medium. This worse feature of wireless networks necessitates the prudent modeling of interference to be used in several design areas like channel assignment, routing, etc. Wireless mesh networks are a type of adhoc networks with a static backhaul network. This study provides a comprehensive analysis of different parameters that could possibly contribute to model interference and use the same in the design of interference aware routing metric.
  P. S Chourey , Q. B Li and D. Kumar

The miniature1 (mn1) seed phenotype is a loss-of-function mutation at the Mn1 locus that encodes a cell wall invertase; its deficiency leads to pleiotropic changes including altered sugar levels and decreased levels of IAA throughout seed development. To understand the molecular details of such a sugar–hormone relationship, we have initiated studies on IAA biosynthesis genes in developing seeds of maize. Two tryptophan-dependent pathways of IAA biosynthesis, tryptamine (TAM) and indole-3-pyruvic acid (IPA), are of particular interest. We report on molecular isolation and characterization of an endosperm-specific ZmTARelated1 (ZmTar1) gene of the IPA branch; we have also reported recently on ZmYuc1 gene in the TAM branch. Comparative gene expression analyses here have shown that (1) the ZmTar1 transcripts were approximately 10-fold higher levels than the ZmYuc1; (2) although both genes showed the highest level of expression at 8–12 d after pollination (DAP) coincident with an early peak in IAA levels, the two showed highly divergent (antagonistic) response at 12 and 16 DAP but similar patterns at 20 and 28 DAP in the Mn1 and mn1 endosperm. The Western blot analyses for the ZmTAR1 protein, however, displayed disconcordant protein/transcript expression patterns. Overall, these data report novel observations on redundant trp-dependent pathways of auxin biosynthesis in developing seeds of maize, and suggest that homeostatic control of IAA in this important sink is highly complex and may be regulated by both sucrose metabolism and developmental signals.

  D. Kumar , Savitri , N. Thakur , R. Verma and T. C. Bhalla
  Proteases represents one of the major groups of industrial enzymes and a number of detergent stable proteases have been isolated and characterized because of its widespread use in detergents. It is worthwhile to screen microbes from new habitats for proteases with novel properties to meet the needs of rapidly growing detergent industry. High-alkaline serine proteases have been successfully applied as protein degrading components of detergent formulations and are subject to extensive protein engineering efforts to improve their stability and performance. Protein engineering has been extremely used to study the structure-function relationship in proteases and led to deeper understanding of the factors influencing the cleaning performance of detergent proteases. This study, discusses the types and sources of proteases with an overview on applications of proteases as laundry detergent additives and some advances in improving the stability and performance of detergent enzymes.
  M. Sridhar , D. Kumar , S. Anandan , C.S. Prasad and K.T. Sampath
  Considering the importance of polycentric anaerobic rumen fungi in fiber digestibility and in the paucity of any reports in Indian cattle an attempt was made to isolate and characterize Orpinomyces species employing a combination of both morphological and molecular methods. Around six hundred rumen liquor/fecal samples of cows and buffaloes were collected from various locations within the country in order to characterize Opinomyces species predominant in Indian cattle and buffaloes using medium 10X and hungate roll tubes. Orpinomyces genera were characterized by the presence of numerous coralloid sporangiophore complexes with large bulbous sporangia and polyflagellated zoospores similar to those of Neocallimastix sp., Orpinomyces joyonii and Orpinomyces intercalaris were the two predominant species obtained with the former being characterized by the spherical sporangia developing on branched or simple sporangiophore complexes with the hypae having light constrictions, while the latter had globose sporangia developing from expansion of hyphae or as lateral outgrowths but rarely terminal. The hydrolytic enzyme activities of the two species of Orpinomyces showed that O. joyonii was characterized by high endoglucanase, xylanase and β-glucosidase activity while Orpinomyces intercalaris showed higher activities of cellobiohydrolase and β-xylosidase showing different strategy for fiber degradation. The DNA-based methodologies were used to identify the isolated Orpinomyces using Internal transcribed spacer region (ITS1) analysis of the fungal rDNA genes. Three of the Indian isolates (NIANP 49, NIANP 58 and NIANP 60) had motifs 5, 8, 7 and 5 corresponding to Variable region I, II, III and IV, respectively and morphologically were identified as Orpinomyces joyonii. The sequence of two isolates (NIANP 57 and 59) however, was different from the rest of the isolates in having motif 8 in Variable region III and morphologically were identified as Orpinomyces intercalaris. Multiple alignments of obtained sequences showed all the isolates to fall within a single group together with the Piromyces II group. By the combination of morphological and phylogenetic analysis we showed that gut of Indian cattle and buffaloes was predominated by only two species viz.Orpinomyces joyonii and Orpinomyces intercalaris.
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