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Articles by D. Jini
Total Records ( 9 ) for D. Jini
  Baby Joseph and D. Jini
  Salinity toxicity is a worldwide agricultural and eco-environmental problem. Salt stress is one of the major abiotic stresses faced by plants, which adversely affect their productivity. Salt stress causes reduction of crop yield and alterations in plant metabolism, including a reduced water potential, ion imbalances and toxicity and sometimes severe salt stress may even threaten survival. Salinity also leads to oxidative stress in plants due to the production of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) such as the super oxide radical, hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radical. Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) generated during metabolic processes damage cellular functions and consequently lead to disease, senescence and cell death. Plants have evolved an efficient defense system by which the ROS is scavenged by antioxidant enzymes. Attempts to reduce oxidative damages under the salt stress conditions have included the manipulation of ROS scavenging enzymes by gene transfer technology. It is important to increase the productivity under stressful environment by developing plants that have well adapted to environmental stress through manipulating antioxidant system. In this study, the rational approaches to develop stress-tolerant plants by gene manipulation of antioxidant enzymes will be introduced to provide solutions for the global food and environmental problems in the 21st century.
  Baby Joseph , P. Sankarganesh , Biby T. Edwin , S. Jusin Raj , M.V. Jeevitha , S.U. Ajisha , Sheeja S. Rajan , R. Mini Priya , D. Jini and Vrundha Nair
  The energy sector is one of the most important sectors in the nation. This sector has contributed to the development and economic well being of the country. But power generation is a difficult task without causing environment pollution. Non-renewable energies like coal, atomic energy and hydrothermal are the current scenario in power generation. Even, when fossil fuels burn they leave by-products that damage both the environment and health, causing misery for millions of people. Currently, science and technology establish novel methods on waste recycling, which provides the way to study the utilization of animal wastes for biogas with low level emission of carbon pollutants and energy production. It putforth some novel ideas on the production of electric energy from chicken litter and biodiesel production from its feathers which has high impact value on renewable bioresource management. This segment of the energy market is likely to grow rapidly and utilities will adapt to the opportunity with challenges. The future of day-lighting as a renewable energy resource applied in buildings is, therefore, very promising and eventually, it assures 100% energy production process with less expensive and helps in high environmental protection.
  Baby Joseph , D. Jini and S.U. Ajisha
  Genetically modified plants are simply plants, whose genetic material has been modified. Forests of genetically altered trees and other plants could sequester several billion tons of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and convert it into long-lived forms of carbon, first in vegetation and ultimately in soil and so help ameliorate global warming. Besides increasing the efficiency of plant’s absorption of light, researchers might be able to genetically alter plants so they send more carbon into their roots--where some may be converted into soil carbon and remain out of circulation for centuries. Other possibilities include altering plants so that they can better withstand the stresses of growing on marginal land and so that they yield improved bioenergy and food crops. Drought resistant plants can be produced by the use of genetic engineering, so that they can withstand in the stressed environment. The genetically altering plants, thereby increasing the efficiency of plant’s absorption of director scattered sunlight; making them send more carbon into their roots where some may be converted into soil carbon and remain out of circulation for centuries; making them better able to withstand the stresses of growing on marginal land, improving their yield, in terms of bioenergy and food crops. A combination of such genomic improvement might enormously increase the amount of carbon that vegetation naturally extracts from air. Such innovations might, in combination, boost substantially the amount of carbon that vegetation naturally extracts from air.
  Baby Joseph and D. Jini
  Salinity is one of the most severe environmental factors that may impair crop productivity. Increased salinization of arable land is expected to have devastating global effects, resulting in 30% land loss within the next 25 years and up to 50% by the year 2050. Therefore, breeding for salinity stress tolerance in crop plants (for food supply) and in forest trees (a central component of the global ecosystem) should be given high research priority in plant biotechnology programs. Molecular control mechanisms for abiotic stress tolerance are based on the activation and regulation of specific stress related genes. Abiotic stresses usually cause protein dysfunction. Maintaining proteins in their functional conformations and preventing the aggregation of non-native proteins are particularly important for cell survival under stress. Cells subjected to salt stress showed a protective response which enabled them to survive. In the last few years, considerable progress has been made in the analysis of the transcriptome to study salt stress either alone or in combination with other abiotic stresses. However, there is no review that highlights the studies conducted to-date on proteomic analysis of salinity stress-responsive proteins in plants. The present review summarizes the effect of salinity in plants and the current initiatives in proteomic research for the analysis of plant salt tolerance. The importance of this review is to improve the salt tolerability of plants by understanding the alterations of proteins in plants.
  Baby Joseph and D. Jini
  Salinity toxicity is a worldwide agricultural and eco-environmental problem. Salt stress is one of the major abiotic stresses faced by plants, which adversely affect their productivity. Salt stress causes reduction of crop yield and alterations in plant metabolism, including a reduced water potential, ion imbalances and toxicity and sometimes severe salt stress may even threaten survival. Salinity also leads to oxidative stress in plants due to the production of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) such as the super oxide radical, hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radical. Oxidative stress is one of the major limiting factors in plant productivity. Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) generated during metabolic processes damage cellular functions and consequently lead to disease, senescence and cell death. Plants have evolved an efficient defense system by which the ROS is scavenged by antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), calatase (CAT), peroxidase (POX), Polyphenoloxidase (PPO) and Glutathione Reductase (GR). Attempts to reduce oxidative damages under the salt stress conditions have included the manipulation of ROS scavenging enzymes by gene transfer technology. It is important to maintain and/or increase the productivity (photosynthetic capacity) under stressful environment by developing plants that have well adapted to environmental stress through manipulating antioxidant system. In this study, we discuss the role of antioxidant enzymes for salt tolerance in plants and this study will help to improve the tolerability of plants to salt by enhancing the expression of antioxidant enzymes.
  G.H Tariku , A.A Zerihun , Z.S Bisrat , G.G Adissu and D. Jini
  Background and Objective: Mental distress is a collection of mental problems that affect society as a whole and no one is immune against it. Students have a significantly high level of psychological distress which affects their ability to concentrate on academics. So the present study was aimed to assess the prevalence of mental distress and its associated factors among students of Mizan Aman Health Sciences College in South West Ethiopia. Materials and Methods: An institution based quantitative cross sectional study was conducted among 308 students from 1st June, 2016-30th June, 2016. Stratified random sampling followed by simple random sampling technique was used to select the study participants. Data were collected using pre-tested structured self-administered questionnaire. The collected data was entered into the computer using Epidemiological information software version 3.5.1 and analysis were done by using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20:00. Finally, a multivariate logistic regression model was created to predict the mental distress among students. Results: Ninety seven percent of the study participants had written the questionnaires. The proportion of the students experiencing mental distress was found to be 29.2%. Being female [AOR 3.13, 95% CI = 1.5-6.49], having conflict with family [AOR 2.20, 95% CI = 1.24-3.90], having financial distress [AOR 1.99, 95% CI = 1.10-3.56] and ever use of khat [AOR 2.29, 95% CI = 1.04-5.04] were statistically significant predictors of mental distress. Conclusion: The prevalence of mental distress among the students was found to be relatively high. Being female sex, conflict with family, having financial distress and ever use of Khat were predictors of mental distress. Therefore, it is recommended that remedial action and due attention from policy makers, college officials, non-governmental organizations, parents, students and other concerned bodies should be needed to reduce the mental distress.
  Baby Joseph and D. Jini
  Salt stress is one of the major abiotic stresses faced by plants, which adversely affect their productivity, affects large terrestrial areas of the world; the need to produce salt-tolerant crops is evident. Programmed Cell Death (PCD) plays an important role in mediating plant adaptive responses to the adverse environment such as salinity. Salinity that causes PCD in plant cells and is a substantial constraint to crop production. Two main approaches are being used to improve salt tolerance: (1) the exploitation of natural genetic variations, either through direct selection in stressful environments or through mapping quantitative trait loci and subsequent marker-assisted selection and (2) the generation of transgenic plants to introduce novel genes or to alter expression levels of the existing genes to affect the degree of salt stress tolerance. Cells subjected to salt stress showed a protective response which enabled them to survive. In the last few years, considerable progress has been made in the analysis of the transcriptome to study salt stress either alone or in combination with other abiotic stresses. However, there is no review that highlights the studies conducted to-date on salinity induced PCD in plants: Challenges and opportunities for salt tolerant plants. We believe that the present summary and perspective on salinity induced PCD in plants will provide a backbone to enable further studies on PCD occurs by salt stress and help to develop salt-tolerant plants through biotechnological strategies.
  T. Minuta and D. Jini
  Background and Objective: Ethiopia is one of the well-known coffee producing countries in the world. Coffee processing industries in Ethiopia are generating very high amount of pollution in the water resources because they are disposing its effluent to the nearby water course without any treatment. Therefore, the present study was conducted to evaluate the impact of effluents from wet coffee processing plants discharged into Walleme river. Materials and Methods: Water samples from 4 sampling stations were analyzed for pH, conductivity, total dissolved solids (TDS), total suspended solids (TSS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), total nitrogen, ammonium nitrogen (NH4+-N) and phosphate (PO43–). Sampling stations were designated as S1 (upstream station above effluent discharge point) and three downstream stations (S2, S3 and S4). One-way ANOVA was used for analysis of data. Results: The mean values for all analyzed parameters, except phosphates were significantly (p<0.05) higher at the stations found below the coffee effluent discharge points than the upstream one. TSS, total ammonia, total nitrogen, COD, BOD5 and pH were found to exceed the maximum permissible limit (MPL) set both by Ethiopian Environmental Protection Agency and World Health Organization (WHO). Conclusion: The study has clearly indicated that the water quality of the river was significantly affected by the discharge of un-treated effluents and by-product from coffee washed plants. Therefore, urgent interference should be taken for effluent management options to avoid further needless damage to the environment.
  Baby Joseph and D. Jini
  Diabetes mellitus is considered as one of the five leading causes of death in the world. Herbal treatment for diabetes has been a part of traditional medicine for thousands of years. The natural herbs for diabetes treatment focus on lowering blood sugar and reducing the damaging effects of the disease. Traditional Medicines derived from medicinal plants are used by about 60% of the world’s population. Diabetes is an important human ailment afflicting many from various walks of life in different countries. In India it is proving to be a major health problem, especially in the urban areas. The natural herbs for diabetes treatment focus on lowering blood sugar and reducing the damaging effects of the disease. Herbal supplements for diabetes should be a part of a holistic approach to treatment that addresses proper nutrition, a good exercise program, and continued monitoring of blood glucose levels. Though there are various approaches to reduce the ill effects of diabetes and its secondary complications, herbal formulations are preferred due to lesser side effects and low cost. A list of medicinal plants with proven antidiabetic and related beneficial effects and of herbal drugs used in treatment of diabetes is compiled. This review focuses on Indian Herbal plants used in the treatment of diabetes, especially in India.
 
 
 
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