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Articles by D. Fedida
Total Records ( 3 ) for D. Fedida
  Y Dou , E Balse , A Dehghani Zadeh , T Wang , C. L Goonasekara , G. P Noble , J Eldstrom , D. F Steele , S. N Hatem and D. Fedida

The transfection of cardiac myocytes is difficult, and so most of the data regarding the regulation of trafficking and targeting of cardiac ion channels have been obtained using heterologous expression systems. Here we apply the fast biolistic transfection procedure to adult cardiomyocytes to show that biolistically introduced exogenous voltage-gated potassium channel, Kv1.5, is functional and, like endogenous Kv1.5, localizes to the intercalated disc, where it is expressed at the surface of that structure. Transfection efficiency averages 28.2 ± 5.7% of surviving myocytes at 24 h postbombardment. Ventricular myocytes transfected with a tagged Kv1.5 exhibit an increased sustained current component that is ~40% sensitive to 100 µM 4-aminopyridine and which is absent in myocytes transfected with a fluorescent protein-encoding construct alone. Kv1.5 deletion mutations known to reduce the surface expression of the channel in heterologous cells similarly reduce the surface expression in transfected ventricular myocytes, although targeting to the intercalated disc per se is generally unaffected by both NH2- and COOH-terminal deletion mutants. Expressed current levels in wild-type Kv1.5, Kv1.5SH3(1), Kv1.5N209, and Kv1.5N135 mutants were well correlated with apparent surface expression of the channel at the intercalated disc. Our results conclusively demonstrate functionality of channels present at the intercalated disc in native myocytes and identify determinants of trafficking and surface targeting in intact cells. Clearly, biolistic transfection of adult cardiac myocytes will be a valuable method to study the regulation of surface expression of channels in their native environment.

  J Eldstrom , H Xu , D Werry , C Kang , M. E Loewen , A Degenhardt , S Sanatani , G. F Tibbits , C Sanders and D. Fedida

Long QT interval syndrome (LQTS) type 1 (LQT1) has been reported to arise from mutations in the S3 domain of KCNQ1, but none of the seven S3 mutations in the literature have been characterized with respect to trafficking or biophysical deficiencies. Surface channel expression was studied using a proteinase K assay for KCNQ1 D202H/N, I204F/M, V205M, S209F, and V215M coexpressed with KCNE1 in mammalian cells. In each case, the majority of synthesized channel was found at the surface, but mutant IKs current density at +100 mV was reduced significantly for S209F, which showed ~75% reduction over wild type (WT). All mutants except S209F showed positively shifted V1/2’s of activation and slowed channel activation compared with WT (V1/2 = +17.7 ± 2.4 mV and activation of 729 ms at +20 mV; n = 18). Deactivation was also accelerated in all mutants versus WT (126 ± 8 ms at –50 mV; n = 27), and these changes led to marked loss of repolarizing currents during action potential clamps at 2 and 4 Hz, except again S209F. KCNQ1 models localize these naturally occurring S3 mutants to the surface of the helices facing the other voltage sensor transmembrane domains and highlight inter-residue interactions involved in activation gating. V207M, currently classified as a polymorphism and facing lipid in the model, was indistinguishable from WT IKs. We conclude that S3 mutants of KCNQ1 cause LQTS predominantly through biophysical effects on the gating of IKs, but some mutants also show protein stability/trafficking defects, which explains why the kinetic gain-of-function mutation S209F causes LQT1.

  A. J Horne , C. J Peters , T. W Claydon and D. Fedida

The Kv1.2 channel, with its high resolution crystal structure, provides an ideal model for investigating conformational changes associated with channel gating, and fluorescent probes attached at the extracellular end of S4 are a powerful way to gain a more complete understanding of the voltage-dependent activity of these dynamic proteins. Tetramethylrhodamine-5-maleimide (TMRM) attached at A291C reports two distinct rearrangements of the voltage sensor domains, and a comparative fluorescence scan of the S4 and S3–S4 linker residues in Shaker and Kv1.2 shows important differences in their emission at other homologous residues. Kv1.2 shows a rapid decrease in A291C emission with a time constant of 1.5 ± 0.1 ms at 60 mV (n = 11) that correlates with gating currents and reports on translocation of the S4 and S3–S4 linker. However, unlike any Kv channel studied to date, this fast component is dwarfed by a larger, slower quenching of TMRM emission during depolarizations between –120 and –50 mV ( = 21.4 ± 2.1 ms at 60 mV, V1/2 of –73.9 ± 1.4 mV) that is not seen in either Shaker or Kv1.5 and that comprises >60% of the total signal at all activating potentials. The slow fluorescence relaxes after repolarization in a voltage-dependent manner that matches the time course of Kv1.2 ionic current deactivation. Fluorophores placed directly in S1 and S2 at I187 and T219 recapitulate the time course and voltage dependence of slow quenching. The slow component is lost when the extracellular S1–S2 linker of Kv1.2 is replaced with that of Kv1.5 or Shaker, suggesting that it arises from a continuous internal rearrangement within the voltage sensor, initiated at negative potentials but prevalent throughout the activation process, and which must be reversed for the channel to close.

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