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Articles by D. D. Cooke
Total Records ( 3 ) for D. D. Cooke
  D. Rankin , D. D. Cooke , M. Clark , S. Heller , J. Elliott and J. Lawton
  Background  Conventional insulin therapy requires patients with Type 1 diabetes to adhere to rigid dietary and insulin injection practices. Recent trends towards flexible intensive insulin therapy enable patients to match insulin to dietary intake and lifestyle; however, little work has examined patients' experiences of incorporating these practices into real-life contexts. This qualitative longitudinal study explored patients' experiences of using flexible intensive insulin therapy to help inform the development of effective long-term support.

Methods  Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 30 adult patients with Type 1 diabetes following participation in a structured education programme on using flexible intensive insulin therapy, and 6 and 12 months post-course. Longitudinal data analysis used an inductive, thematic approach.

Results  Patients consistently reported feeling committed to and wanting to sustain flexible intensive insulin therapy. This regimen was seen as a logical and effective method of self-management, as patients experienced improved blood glucose readings and/or reported feeling better. Implementing and sustaining flexible intensive insulin therapy was enhanced when patients had stable routines, with more challenges reported by those working irregular hours and during weekends/holidays. Some patients re-crafted their lives to make this approach work for them; for instance, by creating dietary routines or adjusting dietary choices.

Conclusions  Clinical data have shown that flexible intensive insulin therapy can lead to improvement in glycaemic control. This study, drawing on patients' perspectives, provides further endorsement for flexible intensive insulin therapy by demonstrating patients' liking of, and their motivation to sustain, this approach over time. To help patients implement and sustain flexible intensive insulin therapy, follow-up support should encourage them to identify routines to better integrate this regimen into their lives.

  D. Rankin , D. D. Cooke , S. Heller , J. Elliott , S. Amiel and J. Lawton
  Aims  Use of blood glucose targets is considered essential to help patients with Type 1 diabetes achieve tight glycaemic control following structured education. To foster effective use of blood glucose targets, we explored patients' experiences and views of implementing clinically recommended blood glucose targets after attending a structured education programme promoting intensive insulin treatment.

Methods  Repeat, in-depth interviews with 30 patients with Type 1 diabetes recruited from Dose Adjustment for Normal Eating (DAFNE) courses in the UK. Data were analysed using an inductive, thematic approach.

Results  Patients found use of blood glucose targets motivational. Targets enabled patients to identify problems with blood glucose control and prompted them to make insulin dose adjustments independently, or with assistance. However, patients tended to adapt or simplify targets over time to: make them more attainable and easy to remember; reduce risk of hypoglycaemia; and, mitigate feelings of failure when attempts to attain clinically defined targets were unsuccessful. Some patients were advised to use elevated targets to counter hypoglycaemia unawareness and required help from health professionals to determine when/if these should be reduced.

Conclusions  Although blood glucose targets are an important component of diabetes self-management, patients may adapt and personalize them over time, sometimes inadvertently, with a potentially detrimental impact on long-term glycaemic control. Blood glucose targets should be regularly revisited during clinical reviews and revised/new targets agreed to accommodate patients' concerns and difficulties. Other interventions may need to be considered to promote effective use of blood glucose targets.

  J. Lawton , D. Rankin , D. D. Cooke , J. Elliott , S. Amiel and S. Heller
  Aims  Despite improvements in insulin therapy, hypoglycaemia remains an inevitable part of life for many people with Type 1 diabetes. Little attention has been paid to how individuals self-treat hypoglycaemia and their likes and dislikes of clinically recommended treatments. We explored participants' experiences of self-treating hypoglycaemia after attending a structured education programme for people with Type 1 diabetes. Our aims were: to identify treatments that are acceptable to people with Type 1 diabetes; and to provide recommendations for promoting self-treatment in line with clinical guidelines.

Methods  Thirty adults with Type 1 diabetes were recruited from the Dose Adjustment for Normal Eating (DAFNE) programme in the UK. Study participants were interviewed post-course and 6 and 12 months later, enabling their experiences to be explored over time.

Results  Study participants described a poor knowledge of how to self-treat hypoglycaemia correctly pre-course. Post-course, individuals often struggled to adhere to clinically recommended guidelines because of: panic, disorientation, hunger sensations and consequent difficulties ingesting fixed quantities of fast-acting carbohydrate; use of sweets to manage hypoglycaemia; reversion to habituated practices when cognitive impairment as a result of hypoglycaemia supervened; difficulties ingesting dextrose tablets; and other people's anxieties about under-treatment.

Conclusions  Historical experiences of hypoglycaemia and habituated practices can influence present self-treatment approaches. Professionals need to be aware of the range of difficulties individuals may experience restricting themselves to fixed quantities of fast-acting carbohydrate to manage hypoglycaemia. There may be merit in developing a more acceptable range of treatments tailored to people's own preferences, circumstances and needs.

 
 
 
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