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Articles by D. Cooke
Total Records ( 3 ) for D. Cooke
  D. Cooke , S. J. Hurel , A. Casbard , L. Steed , S. Walker , S. Meredith , A. J. Nunn , A. Manca , M. Sculpher , M. Barnard , D. Kerr , J. U. Weaver , J. Ahlquist and S. P. Newman

Aims To determine whether continuous glucose information provided through use of either the GlucoWatch G2 Biographer or the MiniMed continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) results in improved glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) for insulin-treated adults with diabetes mellitus, relative to an attention control and standard care group.

Methods Four hundred and four adults taking at least two daily insulin injections and with two consecutive HbA1c values ≥ 7.5% were recruited to this randomized controlled trial (RCT). All were trained at baseline to use the same monitor for traditional capillary glucose testing throughout the 18-month study. The CGMS group were asked to wear the device three times during the first 3 months of the trial and on another three occasions thereafter. The GlucoWatch group wore the device a minimum of four times per month and a maximum of four times per week during the first 3 months and as desired for the remainder of the trial. Trained diabetes research nurses used downloaded data to guide therapy adjustments. Proportional reduction in HbA1c from baseline to 18 months was the primary outcome measure.

Results Neither an intention-to-treat nor per-protocol analysis showed improvement in HbA1c in the device groups compared with standard care. For the intention-to-treat analysis, when the standard care group was compared with each of the other groups, this equated to differences in mean relative HbA1c reduction (95% confidence interval) from baseline to 18 months of 3.5% (−1.3 to 8.3; GlucoWatch), 0.7% (−4.1 to 5.5; CGMS), and −0.1% (−4.6 to 4.3; attention control).

Conclusions The additional information provided by these devices did not result in improvements in HbA1c in this population.

  M. Hamer , A. P. Kengne , G. D. Batty , D. Cooke and E Stamatakis
  Aims  We assessed temporal trends in diabetes prevalence and key diabetes risk factors (obesity, physical activity, smoking) over 5 years in a nationally representative sample.

Methods  Participants were drawn from the Scottish Health Surveys, which recruited two separate, nationally representative samples in 2003 (n = 7229, aged 50.5 ± 17.2 years) and 2008 (n = 6313, aged 51.8 ± 17.6 years). Prevalent diabetes was assessed from a self-reported physician's diagnosis, and high diabetes risk or undiagnosed cases were defined from HbA1c≥ 6.0% (≥ 42 mmol/mol) to < 6.5% (< 47.5 mmol/mol) and ≥ 6.5% (≥ 47.5 mmol/mol), respectively.

Results  Over 5 years there was an increased prevalence of diabetes (5.2 vs. 9.4% in 2003 and 2008, respectively) and in the prevalence of high diabetes risk (2.9 vs. 12.4%). These differences were accentuated in participants aged 65 years and above; for diabetes, there was a prevalence of 12 and 17.3% in 2003 and 2008, respectively, and, for high risk, the prevalence was 7.8 and 24.7%, respectively. There was also an increase in diabetes risk factors, including obesity and lack of physical activity, although these factors did not explain the diabetes trend.

Conclusions  These results suggest nearly a doubling in the prevalence of diabetes over 5 years in Scotland.

  L. Grant , J. Lawton , D. Hopkins , J. Elliott , S. Lucas , M. Clark , I. MacLellan , M. Davies , S. Heller and D. Cooke


Study aims were to (1) describe and compare the way diabetes structured education courses have evolved in the UK, (2) identify and agree components of course curricula perceived as core across courses and (3) identify and classify self-care behaviours in order to develop a questionnaire assessment tool.


Structured education courses were selected through the Type 1 diabetes education network. Curricula from five courses were examined and nine educators from those courses were interviewed. Transcripts were analysed using framework analysis. Fourteen key stakeholders attended a consensus meeting, to identify and classify Type 1 diabetes self-care behaviours.


Eighty-three courses were identified. Components of course curricula perceived as core by all diabetes educators were: carbohydrate counting and insulin dose adjustment, hypoglycaemia management, group work, goal setting and empowerment, confidence and control. The broad areas of self-management behaviour identified at the consensus meeting were carbohydrate counting and awareness, insulin dose adjustment, self-monitoring of blood glucose, managing hypoglycaemia, managing equipment and injection sites; and accessing health care. Specific self-care behaviours within each area were identified.


Planned future work will develop an updated questionnaire tool to access self-care behaviours. This will enable assessment of the effectiveness of existing structured education programmes at producing desired changes in behaviour. It will also help people with diabetes and their healthcare team identify areas where additional support is needed to initiate or maintain changes in behaviour. Provision of such support may improve glycaemia and reduce diabetes-related complications and severe hypoglycaemia.

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