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Articles by D. S Alberts
Total Records ( 4 ) for D. S Alberts
  P. A Thompson , C. H Hsu , S Green , A. T Stopeck , K Johnson , D. S Alberts and H H. S. Chow

Regular use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) has been associated with reduced risk of breast cancer. Sulindac, a nonselective NSAID with both cyclooxygenase-2–dependent and –independent activities, is a candidate for breast chemoprevention. We conducted a phase Ib trial in 30 women at increased risk for breast cancer to evaluate the breast tissue distribution of sulindac at two dose levels (150 mg daily and 150 mg twice daily for 6 weeks), using nipple aspirate fluid (NAF) as a surrogate of breast tissue drug exposure. We also explored the effect of sulindac on drug-induced biomarkers in NAF. We show that sulindac and its metabolites partition to human breast as measured by NAF levels. Sulindac intervention did not decrease 13,14-dihydro-15-keto prostaglandin A2, a stable derivative of prostaglandin E2, in NAF, but exposure was associated with a significant trend towards higher levels of growth differentiation factor 15 in NAF in women receiving 150 mg twice daily (P = 0.038). These results are the first to show partitioning of sulindac and metabolites to human breast tissue and the first evidence for a potential dose-dependent effect of sulindac on growth differentiation factor 15 levels in NAF. Cancer Prev Res; 3(1); 101–7

  S. P Stratton , D. S Alberts , J. G Einspahr , P. M Sagerman , J. A Warneke , C Curiel Lewandrowski , P. B Myrdal , K. L Karlage , B. J Nickoloff , C Brooks , K Saboda , M. L Yozwiak , M. F Krutzsch , C Hu , M Lluria Prevatt , Z Dong , G. T Bowden and P. H. Bartels

The chemopreventive and antitumor properties of perillyl alcohol (POH) that were studied preclinically indicate that topical POH inhibits both UVB-induced murine skin carcinogenesis (squamous cell tumor models) and 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene–induced murine melanoma (transgenic models involving tyrosinase-driven Ras). A previous phase 1 clinical trial in participants with normal-appearing skin showed that topical POH cream was well tolerated at a dose of 0.76% (w/w). Here, we performed a 3-month, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled phase 2a trial of two different doses of topical POH in individuals with sun-damaged skin. Participants applied POH cream twice daily to each dorsal forearm. Baseline and end-of-study biopsies were taken from each participant to evaluate whether the topical application of POH was effective in reversing actinic damage as evidenced by normalization of quantitative skin histopathologic scores and change in nuclear chromatin pattern as measured by karyometric analysis. There was a borderline reduction in the histopathologic score of the lower-dose POH group compared with the placebo (P = 0.1), but this was not observed in the high-dose group. However, in the high-dose group, a statistically significant reduction in the proportion of nuclei deviating from normal was observed by the use of karyometric analysis (P < 0.01). There was no statistical significance shown in the lower-dose group. No changes were observed in p53 expression, cellular proliferation (by proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression), or apoptosis in either treatment group compared with the placebo group. These results suggest that whereas our karyometric analyses can detect a modest effect of POH in sun-damaged skin, improved delivery into the epidermis may be necessary. Cancer Prev Res; 3(2); 160–9

  E. R Olson , T Melton , S. E Dickinson , Z Dong , D. S Alberts and G. T. Bowden

Quercetin (Qu) is currently being investigated as a chemopreventive agent for several cancers, including nonmelanoma skin cancer induced by UV light. We previously reported that Qu degradation has important consequences on signaling and cell biology. In the current study, we report that Qu induces c-Fos mRNA and protein expression through activation of p38 and cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB), and Qu potentiates UVB-induced c-Fos expression. Inclusion of ascorbic acid (AA) in cell culture medium stabilizes Qu and completely prevents both Qu- and UVB-induced p38 and CREB activation, leading to a blockade of c-fos gene expression through reduced CREB/cAMP-responsive element binding. AA stabilizes c-Fos mRNA, increasing steady-state levels even when c-fos gene expression is suppressed, but this has no effect on c-Fos protein levels in either mock- or UVB-irradiated cells. We report that Qu blocks mammalian target of rapamycin signaling and inhibits c-Fos protein expression directly through this mechanism because cotreatment with Qu and AA resulted in the complete suppression of UVB-induced c-Fos protein expression even in the presence of significantly increased mRNA levels. We further confirmed that this was not due to increased protein turnover because inhibition of proteasome activity with MG-132 did not raise c-Fos protein levels in Qu+AA-treated cells. Together, these data indicate that although Qu has been reported to have some beneficial properties as a chemopreventive agent, it is also capable of inducing c-fos expression, a cellular event important for the promotion phase of tumor development, if it is not stabilized. Cancer Prev Res; 3(7); 876–84. ©2010 AACR.

  A Sekulic , S. Y Kim , G Hostetter , S Savage , J. G Einspahr , A Prasad , P Sagerman , C Curiel Lewandrowski , R Krouse , G. T Bowden , J Warneke , D. S Alberts , M. R Pittelkow , D DiCaudo , B. J Nickoloff , J. M Trent and M. Bittner

Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) occurs commonly and can metastasize. Identification of specific molecular aberrations and mechanisms underlying the development and progression of cutaneous SCC may lead to better prognostic and therapeutic approaches and more effective chemoprevention strategies. To identify genetic changes associated with early stages of cutaneous SCC development, we analyzed a series of 40 archived skin tissues ranging from normal skin to invasive SCC. Using high-resolution array-based comparative genomic hybridization, we identified deletions of a region on chromosome 10q harboring the INPP5A gene in 24% of examined SCC tumors. Subsequent validation by immunohistochemistry on an independent sample set of 71 SCC tissues showed reduced INPP5A protein levels in 72% of primary SCC tumors. Decrease in INPP5A protein levels seems to be an early event in SCC development, as it also is observed in 9 of 26 (35%) examined actinic keratoses, the earliest stage in SCC development. Importantly, further reduction of INPP5A levels is seen in a subset of SCC patients as the tumor progresses from primary to metastatic stage. The observed frequency and pattern of loss indicate that INPP5A, a negative regulator of inositol signaling, may play a role in development and progression of cutaneous SCC tumors. Cancer Prev Res; 3(10); 1277–83. ©2010 AACR.

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