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Articles by D. R Williams
Total Records ( 5 ) for D. R Williams
  H. M Gonzalez , W. A Vega , D. R Williams , W Tarraf , B. T West and H. W. Neighbors
 

Objective  To determine the prevalence and adequacy of depression care among different ethnic and racial groups in the United States.

Design  Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (CPES) data were analyzed to calculate nationally representative estimates of depression care.

Setting  The 48 coterminous United States.

Participants  Household residents 18 years and older (N = 15 762) participated in the study.

Main Outcome Measures  Past-year depression pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy using American Psychiatric Association guideline-concordant therapies. Depression severity was assessed with the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology Self-Report. Primary predictors were major ethnic/racial groups (Mexican American, Puerto Rican, Caribbean black, African American, and non-Latino white) and World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview criteria for 12-month major depressive episode.

Results  Mexican American and African American individuals meeting 12-month major depression criteria consistently and significantly had lower odds for any depression therapy and guideline-concordant therapies despite depression severity ratings not significantly differing between ethnic/racial groups. All groups reported higher use of any past-year psychotherapy and guideline-concordant psychotherapy compared with pharmacotherapy; however, Caribbean black and African American individuals reported the highest proportions of this use.

Conclusions  Few Americans with recent major depression have used depression therapies and guideline-concordant therapies; however, the lowest rates of use were found among Mexican American and African American individuals. Ethnic/racial differences were found despite comparable depression care need. More Americans with recent major depression used psychotherapy over pharmacotherapy, and these differences were most pronounced among Mexican American and African American individuals. This report underscores the importance of disaggregating ethnic/racial groups and depression therapies in understanding and directing efforts to improve depression care in the United States.

  M Selikhova , D. R Williams , P. A Kempster , J. L Holton , T Revesz and A. J. Lees
 

We have carried out a systematic review of the case files of 242 donors with pathologically verified Parkinson's disease at the Queen Square Brain Bank for Neurological Disorders in an attempt to corroborate the data-driven subtype classification proposed by Lewis and colleagues (Heterogeneity of Parkinson's disease in the early clinical stages using a data driven approach. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2005; 76: 343–8). Cases were segregated into earlier disease onset (25%), tremor dominant (31%), non-tremor dominant (36%) and rapid disease progression without dementia (8%) subgroups. We found a strong association between a non-tremor dominant disease pattern and cognitive disability. The earlier disease onset group had the longest duration to death, and greatest delay to the onset of falls and cognitive decline. Patients with a tremor dominant disease pattern did not live significantly longer than non-tremor dominant patients and showed no difference in mean time to onset of falls and hallucinations. Rapid disease progression was associated with older age, early depression and early midline motor symptoms, and in 70% of the cases, tremulous onset. The non-tremor dominant subgroup had a significantly higher mean pathological grading of cortical Lewy bodies than all other groupings (P < 0.05) and more cortical amyloid-β plaque load and cerebral amyloid angiopathy than early disease onset and tremor dominant groups (P = 0.047). An analysis of cases with pathologically defined neocortical Lewy body disease confirmed the link between bradykinetic onset, cognitive decline and Lewy body deposition in the neocortex. Although neuropathological examination failed to distinguish the other subtypes, the classification scheme was supported by an analysis of clinical data that were independent of the basic subgroup definitions.

  H Ling , S. S O'Sullivan , J. L Holton , T Revesz , L. A Massey , D. R Williams , D. C Paviour and A. J. Lees
 

The pathological findings of corticobasal degeneration are associated with several distinct clinical syndromes, and the corticobasal syndrome has been linked with a number of diverse pathologies. We have reviewed all the archival cases in the Queen Square Brain Bank for Neurological Disorders over a 20-year period with either a clinical diagnosis of corticobasal syndrome or pathological diagnosis of corticobasal degeneration in an attempt to identify the main diagnostic pitfalls. Of 19 pathologically confirmed corticobasal degeneration cases, only five had been diagnosed correctly in life (sensitivity = 26.3%) and four of these had received an alternative earlier diagnosis. All five of these had a unilateral presentation, clumsy useless limb, limb apraxia and myoclonus, four had cortical sensory impairment and focal limb dystonia and three had an alien limb. Eight cases of corticobasal degeneration had been clinically diagnosed as progressive supranuclear palsy, all of whom had vertical supranuclear palsy and seven had falls within the first 2 years. On the other hand, of 21 cases with a clinical diagnosis of corticobasal syndrome, only five had corticobasal degeneration pathology, giving a positive predictive value of 23.8%; six others had progressive supranuclear palsy pathology, five had Alzheimer’s disease and the remaining five had other non-tau pathologies. Corticobasal degeneration can present very commonly with a clinical picture closely resembling classical progressive supranuclear palsy or Richardson’s syndrome, and we propose the term corticobasal degeneration-Richardson’s syndrome for this subgroup. Cases of corticobasal degeneration-Richardson’s syndrome have delayed onset of vertical supranuclear gaze palsy (>3 years after onset of first symptom) and the infrequent occurrence of predominant downgaze abnormalities, both of which can be helpful pointers to their underlying corticobasal degeneration pathology. Fourty-two per cent of corticobasal degeneration cases presented clinically with a progressive supranuclear palsy phenotype and 29% of cases with corticobasal syndrome had underlying progressive supranuclear palsy pathology. In contrast, in the Queen Square Brain Bank archival collection, corticobasal syndrome is a rare clinical presentation of progressive supranuclear palsy occurring in only 6 of the 179 pathologically diagnosed progressive supranuclear palsy cases (3%). Despite these diagnostic difficulties we conclude that corticobasal degeneration is a discrete clinicopathological entity but with a broader clinical spectrum than was originally proposed.

  R Bruffaerts , K Demyttenaere , G Borges , J. M Haro , W. T Chiu , I Hwang , E. G Karam , R. C Kessler , N Sampson , J Alonso , L. H Andrade , M Angermeyer , C Benjet , E Bromet , G de Girolamo , R de Graaf , S Florescu , O Gureje , I Horiguchi , C Hu , V Kovess , D Levinson , J Posada Villa , R Sagar , K Scott , A Tsang , S. M Vassilev , D. R Williams and M. K. Nock
 

Background

Suicide is a leading cause of death worldwide, but the precise effect of childhood adversities as risk factors for the onset and persistence of suicidal behaviour (suicide ideation, plans and attempts) are not well understood.

Aims

To examine the associations between childhood adversities as risk factors for the onset and persistence of suicidal behaviour across 21 countries worldwide.

Method

Respondents from nationally representative samples (n = 55 299) were interviewed regarding childhood adversities that occurred before the age of 18 years and lifetime suicidal behaviour.

Results

Childhood adversities were associated with an increased risk of suicide attempt and ideation in both bivariate and multivariate models (odds ratio range 1.2–5.7). The risk increased with the number of adversities experienced, but at a decreasing rate. Sexual and physical abuse were consistently the strongest risk factors for both the onset and persistence of suicidal behaviour, especially during adolescence. Associations remained similar after additional adjustment for respondents’ lifetime mental disorder status.

Conclusions

Childhood adversities (especially intrusive or aggressive adversities) are powerful predictors of the onset and persistence of suicidal behaviours.

  D Levinson , M. D Lakoma , M Petukhova , M Schoenbaum , A. M Zaslavsky , M Angermeyer , G Borges , R Bruffaerts , G de Girolamo , R de Graaf , O Gureje , J. M Haro , C Hu , A. N Karam , N Kawakami , S Lee , J. P Lepine , M. O Browne , M Okoliyski , J Posada Villa , R Sagar , M. C Viana , D. R Williams and R. C. Kessler
 

Background

Burden-of-illness data, which are often used in setting healthcare policy-spending priorities, are unavailable for mental disorders in most countries.

Aims

To examine one central aspect of illness burden, the association of serious mental illness with earnings, in the World Health Organization (WHO) World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys.

Method

The WMH Surveys were carried out in 10 high-income and 9 low- and middle-income countries. The associations of personal earnings with serious mental illness were estimated.

Results

Respondents with serious mental illness earned on average a third less than median earnings, with no significant between-country differences (2(9) = 5.5–8.1, P = 0.52–0.79). These losses are equivalent to 0.3–0.8% of total national earnings. Reduced earnings among those with earnings and the increased probability of not earning are both important components of these associations.

Conclusions

These results add to a growing body of evidence that mental disorders have high societal costs. Decisions about healthcare resource allocation should take these costs into consideration.

 
 
 
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