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Articles by D. Olila
Total Records ( 7 ) for D. Olila
  D. Olila , G. Kyeyune , J.D. Kabasa , L. Kisovi and P.K.T. Munishi
  Most of the mushrooms, which are used as food by communities bordering Lake Victoria wetland areas, have neither been documented nor studied. These indigenous mushrooms are used solely as products of the wild. While the cultivation of mushrooms for food is a lucrative economic activity even in some developed countries, in East Africa, this has not yet been fully exploited. In the studies reported here, local people around the Lake Victoria basin participated in ranking mushroom species according to their nutritional, medicinal and toxicological significance. Termitomyces microcarpus was the highest ranked edible mushroom in the region. The T. microcarpus mushroom caps at umbrella stage were excised and inverted over dry sterile filter paper in a sterile petri-dish and incubated. The caps were then removed leaving pink `spore prints`. Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) medium was prepared by dissolving 39g of the powder in 1L of distilled water and autoclaved at 121 C for 20 min. On cooling the media was poured in petri-dishes and left to solidify. Using a flame sterilized inoculation wire loop, spores were transferred from the `spore print` and S-streaked on the fresh PDA medium. The inoculated plates were incubated at ambient temperature (25ºC) in the dark for 10 days. Three discrete pure colonies were separately subcultured onto fresh PDA medium and incubated under the previous conditions for 60 days. These constituted the three monospore cultures; S1 S2 and S3 which were used as starter cultures for further studies. The growth of the monospore starter cultures was monitored and a record taken of their colony diameter once a week during the 60 day incubation period. Using the liquid culture technique, the grain mother spawn for monospore starter culture S3 had fully colonized compared to that for monospore starter cultures S1 and S2 which attained full colonization at 75 and 90 days, respectively. However, there were differences in the intensity of colonization with grain mother spawn of monospore starter culture S3 giving a much more intense mycelial growth as compared to grain mother spawn of monospore starter culture S1, which gave a moderate mycelial growth. Mycelial colonization for grain mother spawn of monospore starter culture S2 was a bit scanty. The grain mother spawn prepared using the agar culture plug technique were very slow. After four months mycelial colonization was at most 25% of the total volume of millet substrate of grain mother spawn for monospore starter culture S1, but not more than 10% for the grain mother spawn of monospore starter cultures S2 and S3. Further studies are needed to initiate fruiting body formation which has not been possible under the present test conditions. This will require a better understanding of the relationship between the fungus and the termite and the ecological relationships therein.
  M. Opige , E. Kateyo , J.D. Kabasa and D. Olila
  Antibacterial resistance is a world wide growing problem. Isolation of microbial agents less susceptible to regular antibiotics and recovery of resistant isolates during antibacterial therapy is increasing throughout the world. One of the measures to combat the increasing rate of resistance is to have a continuous investigation for new, safe and effective antimicrobials as alternative agents to substitute with no-effective ones. In this study the efficacy of selected mushrooms of Teso region (Kumi District) against common bacteria was investigated. Antibacterial assays were done using methanol and petroleum ether extracts from mushrooms and Agar Well Diffusion Method and study Disc Methods were used to demonstrate activity. It was noted that E. coli was resistant to most petroleum ether and methanol extracts. Also S. aureus was significantly inhibited by petroleum ether extracts while P. aeruginosa, a very resistant bacterium always, was significantly inhibited by the methanol extracts. These activities might be of some practical importance if the chemical compounds inducing activity are known. Further studies should therefore be done to confirm and extend the present findings, working on a broader range of species.
  H. Matovu and D. Olila
  Botanical pesticides exist within nearly all vector disease endemic communities of the world. Natural/ botanical tick control methods offer several advantages over synthetic tick control including environmental preservation since they have shorter residual periods with rapid action. Tephrosia vogelii a shrubby, leguminous and woody plant is one of the potential candidates to provide affordable botanical acaricides. However, its effectiveness in the control of Acarina has not been fully explored in developing countries. Tephrosia vogelii plant materials were collected from two selected sites, one on a higher altitude than the other. The air-dry plant material was crushed into powder; and extracted with a known volume of solvent. The mixture was left to stand for seven days with daily stirring for at least 2 h. Extracts from shoot, cortex and roots have an average yield of 0.06, 0.05 and 0.015 g per one gram of plant raw material, respectively. Shoot and cortex plant parts accumulate relatively high amounts of the active ingredients in Tephrosia compared to the roots; probably explaining why leaves (shoot) are preferred by the local farmers for effective pest control. Methanol, Petroleum ether and Chloroform yield 0.0875, 0.0142 and 0.0172 g per one gram of plant raw material, respectively, indicating a significantly valuable yield when methanol is used for extraction than any of the other two solvents or water. All extracts killed 100% of the exposed ticks but variations where noted in the time taken to achieve 100% exposed tick death. Petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol and water extracts killed 100% of the ticks in an average time of 8.3, 9.7, 10.3 and 1.3 days, respectively; implying that ticks are more susceptible to the active ingredient extracted using petroleum ether relative to the other solvents. Tephrosia crude extracts can potentially, therefore, be used to effectively control ticks in the Ugandan animal production systems. Photosynthesis and plant respiration seem to have an effect on the production and storage of the active ingredients in Tephrosia with the more effective active ingredients being found in the early morning.
  D. Olila , A. Kapaata , J.D. Kabasa , L. Kisovi and P.K.T. Munishi
  Indigenous mushrooms have attracted little attention form science in the East Africa region for a long time. And yet studies in other areas of the word have shown that mushrooms contain many different bioactive compounds with diverse biological activity. For long, mushrooms have been cultivated world wide for commercial purposes. In East Africa, however, little research has been done in to ascertain the nutritional and anti bacterial properties of indigenous mushrooms, much less their ecology. Proximate composition analysis (Weende) revealed the following: CP (25.9-41.9); CL ( 4.4-7.7); CHO (30.8-38.2); K (1.4-3.5); Ca ( 0.0095-0.0115). This points to the fact that the mushrooms are relatively high in protein and low in fat; making them potentially good health foods. Antibacterial activity was demonstrated in all puffball extracts, but particularly strong on E. coli. Both the polar (methanol) and the non-polar (pet-ether) extracts were shown to have antibacterial activity. The relatively high protein estimates obtained in this study indicate that the indigenous mushrooms are a good source of protein therefore could supplement human diet. The low lipid percentage of these mushrooms would mean that they are potential health foods. Crude extracts from indigenous puff ball mushrooms showed some antibacterial activity on both gram negative (Escherischia coli and Gram positive Staphylococcus aureus). Both methanol (polar) and petroleum ether extracts had activity on some organisms to varying degrees. Extracts from puff balls have greater antibacterial activity on gram negative bacteria than on gram positive. The non polar extracts (Petroleum ether) of puff balls had more activity on E. coli. From the results obtained it can be shown that indigenous puff balls could be a promising source of antibacterial agents. Since most mushrooms are saprophytic, easily growing on agriculture waste materials, it is recommended that agricultural system in this region be encouraged to domesticate these healthy foods. A type collection and taxonomical identification should be embarked on in the whole of the East Africa region so that botanical identification of all the indigenous mushrooms will be made much easier in the future.
  A.P.O. Engola , G. Eilu , J.D. Kabasa , L. Kisovi , P.K.T. Munishi and D. Olila
  The present study was conducted between (October, 2004) and (June, 2005) in two parishes of Kyebe Sub County in Rakai District located in the Lake Victoria Basin, Southwest of Uganda and west of Lake Victoria. The objective of the study was to assess the relationship between mushroom species occurrence, environmental factors and different vegetation types. Ten 1000 m-2 plots were established in each of three vegetation types (grassland, forest and garden) from where mushroom species and trees were assessed. Physical and chemical soil properties as well as canopy were determined in the sample plots. A total of 4.077 individual mushrooms belonging to 5 genera and 10 species were recorded in the plots. Three individuals that could not be identified were assigned to morpho species. Mushroom diversity and evenness were highest in the grassland while dominance was highest in the forest. Pluteus sp was found occurring only in the grassland, Agaricus sp 2 and K/K/04/N1 were found in the garden while three species (Termitomyces sp 1, Podabrella microcarpa and Agaricus sp 1) were found in all vegetation types. Termitomyces sp 1 and Pluteus sp were significantly correlated with some of the measured environmental factors. Indigenous edible mushrooms are an important aspect of ecology. The integrity of the grasslands should be protected to promote mushroom conservation. Field studies on mushroom species in this area in the future should target the rain season between September and December.
  H. Matovu and D. Olila
  The use of natural products and biological insect control methods is gaining importance because of concerns about the environment, since they are more easily biodegradable. In some parts of Uganda, organic farmers have adopted the use of Tephrosia vogelii, a shrubby, leguminous and woody plant for control of storage pests. However, the efficacy of Tephrosia vogelii crude extracts in the control of Dipteran insect larvae under field conditions has not been well tested. Their use for the control of insect vectors such as mosquitoes has not also been fully evaluated. Tephrosia vogelii plant materials were collected from two selected sites, one on a higher altitude than the other using polythene study. The material was chopped, properly labeled and air-dried in a shade for two weeks. Four solvents where used for extraction: Water, Petroleum ether, Chloroform, Methanol. The extract was dried in an oven at about 32-33°C for several days, after which it was weighed and stored in the fridge at 4°C until the time of exposing the mosquito larvae. Shoot Evening Methanol (SEM) was the most effective among methanol extracts; killing an average of 4.57 mosquito larvae in 8 min while Shoot Evening Water (SEW) was the most effective of water extracts killing an average of 2.57 mosquito larvae in 8 min; hence the SEM was considered to be nearly two times more efficacious than SEW on mosquito larvae, at a concentration of 25%: 10.8% or 2.3:1 SEM: SEW, respectively. Tephrosia vogelii crude extracts could potentially therefore be used to control the larval stages of mosquitoes.
  D. Olila , R. Bukenya-Ziraba and D. Kamoga
  The need to utilise drugs and pesticides from local plants is increasingly becoming more important, not only because of the high cost of imported chemicals and drugs, but the availability of these imported drugs has become erratic as their importation has to compete for the meagre foreign exchange with other vital imports required for industrial and social development. In the mount Elgon region of Uganda, plants are often used for treatment of poultry infections. The most highly ranked were: Kedrostis foetidisma (Namusisi), Tithonia diversifolia (Nabululu), Cannabis sativa(Nzaye), Jatropha carcus(Lisanda), Capsicum frutescens (Pilipili), Aloe sp. (Kukatyakatya), Kigelia africana (Kifungu), Albizia coriaria(Kiluku) and Oxygonum simatum (Namakumba). Six methanol extracts showed antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus:Erythrina abysinicca, Tephrosia vogelii; Threehad activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa: Cannabis sativa, Stephania abysinica, Albizia conari and 12 had activity against Bacillus subtilis: Cannabis sativa, Capsicum frutescens, Lantana camara, Jatropha carcus, Stephania abysinnica, Dracenea steudneri, Albizia conaria, Tephrosia vogelii, Aloe sp., Erythrina abysinicca, Oxygonum sinuatum, Azadirachta indica; four methanol extracts had activity against E. coli: Oxygonum sinuatum, Stephania abysinnica, Albizia conaria, Tephrosia vogelii; 7 plants (methanol extracts) had no demonstrable antibacterial activity: Mormodica foetida, Vernonia amygdalina, Cassia occidentalis, Ficus asperifolia, Spilanthes mauritiana, Agave sisalana, Cornyza sumatrensis. Two plant extracts (methanol)were considered to have broad spectrumactivity: Stephania abyssinica, Albizia coraria. Of the petroleum etherextractsonly one plant showed activity against Staphylococcus aureus: Erythrina abysinicca. One plant also had activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa: Draceania steudner. For Bacillus subtilis 14 plants had activity: Capsicum frutescens, Ficus asperlifolia, Spilanthes mauritiana, Cassia occidentalis, Melia azaderach, Erythrina abysinica, Agave sisalana, Azadirachta indica Aloe sp. Kigelia africana Kedrosis foetidisma Tithonia diversifolia Aloe spp, Oxygonum sinuatum; Only one plant(Oxygonum sinuatum) had activity against E. coli. Eight of the plants (pet–ether extracts) had no demonstrable antibacterial activity: Cornyza sumatrensis, Moringa oleifera, Kigelia africana, Albizia conaria, Jatropha carcus, Lantana camara, Verninia amygdalina, Mormodica foetida. Erythrina abysinicca (pet-ether extracts) had a broad spectrum of activity.
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