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Articles by D. N Grigoryev
Total Records ( 9 ) for D. N Grigoryev
  J. H Finigan , A Boueiz , E Wilkinson , R Damico , J Skirball , H. H Pae , M Damarla , E Hasan , D. B Pearse , S. P Reddy , D. N Grigoryev , C Cheadle , C. T Esmon , J. G. N Garcia and P. M. Hassoun

The coagulation system is central to the pathophysiology of acute lung injury. We have previously demonstrated that the anticoagulant activated protein C (APC) prevents increased endothelial permeability in response to edemagenic agonists in endothelial cells and that this protection is dependent on the endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR). We currently investigate the effect of APC in a mouse model of ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). C57BL/6J mice received spontaneous ventilation (control) or mechanical ventilation (MV) with high (HVT; 20 ml/kg) or low (LVT; 7 ml/kg) tidal volumes for 2 h and were pretreated with APC or vehicle via jugular vein 1 h before MV. In separate experiments, mice were ventilated for 4 h and received APC 30 and 150 min after starting MV. Indices of capillary leakage included bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) total protein and Evans blue dye (EBD) assay. Changes in pulmonary EPCR protein and Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) were assessed using SDS-PAGE. Thrombin generation was measured via plasma thrombin-antithrombin complexes. HVT induced pulmonary capillary leakage, as evidenced by significant increases in BAL protein and EBD extravasation, without significantly increasing thrombin production. HVT also caused significant decreases in pulmonary, membrane-bound EPCR protein levels and increases in pulmonary ROCK-1. APC treatment significantly decreased pulmonary leakage induced by MV when given either before or after initiation of MV. Protection from capillary leakage was associated with restoration of EPCR protein expression and attenuation of ROCK-1 expression. In addition, mice overexpressing EPCR on the pulmonary endothelium were protected from HVT-mediated injury. Finally, gene microarray analysis demonstrated that APC significantly altered the expression of genes relevant to vascular permeability at the ontology (e.g., blood vessel development) and specific gene (e.g., MAPK-associated kinase 2 and integrin-β6) levels. These findings indicate that APC is barrier-protective in VILI and that EPCR is a critical participant in APC-mediated protection.

  N. R Aggarwal , F. R D'Alessio , K Tsushima , V. K Sidhaye , C Cheadle , D. N Grigoryev , K. C Barnes and L. S. King

In animal models of acute lung injury (ALI), gene expression studies have focused on the acute phase of illness, with little emphasis on resolution. In this study, the acute phase of intratracheal lipopolysaccharide (IT LPS)-induced lung injury was similar in wild-type (WT) and recombinase-activating gene-1-deficient (Rag-1–/–) lymphocyte-deficient mice, but resolution was impaired and resolution-phase lung gene expression remained different from baseline only in Rag-1–/– mice. By focusing on groups of genes involved in similar biological processes (gene ontologies) pertinent to inflammation and the immune response, we identified 102 genes at days 4 and 10 after IT LPS with significantly different expression between WT and Rag-1–/– mice. After adoptive transfer of isolated CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) to Rag-1–/– mice at the time of IT LPS, resolution was similar to that in WT mice. Of the 102 genes distinctly changed in either WT or Rag-1–/– mice from our 7 gene ontologies, 19 genes reverted from the Rag-1–/– to the WT pattern of expression after adoptive transfer of Tregs, implicating those 19 genes in Treg-mediated resolution of ALI.

  V. Y Polotsky , V Savransky , S Bevans Fonti , C Reinke , J Li , D. N Grigoryev and L. A. Shimoda

Obstructive sleep apnea may cause vascular inflammation and atherosclerosis, which has been attributed to intermittent hypoxia (IH). Recent data suggest that IH, but not sustained hypoxia (SH), activates proinflammatory genes in HeLa cells. Effects of IH and SH on the gene expression profile in human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC) have not been compared. We perfused media with alternating flow of 16% and 0% O2 (IH) or constant flow of 4% O2 (SH-4%), 8% O2 (SH-8%), or 16% O2 (control) for 8 h. Illumina gene microarrays were performed, with subsequent verification by real-time PCR. Proinflammatory cytokines in the media were measured by ELISA. Both IH and SH-4% upregulated proinflammatory genes, including heat shock protein 90-kDa B1, tumor necrosis factor superfamily member 4, and thrombospondin 1. Among all proinflammatory genes, only IL-8 mRNA showed significantly higher levels of expression (1.78-fold) during IH, compared with SH-4%, but both types of hypoxic exposure elicited striking three- to eightfold increases in IL-8 and IL-6 protein levels in the media. IH and SH-4% also upregulated antioxidant genes, including heme oxygenase-1 and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (NRF2), whereas classical genes regulated by hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1), such as endothelin and glucose transporter GLUT1, were not induced. SH-8% induced changes in gene expression and cytokine secretion that were similar to those of IH and SH-4%. In conclusion, short exposures to IH and SH upregulate proinflammatory and antioxidant genes in HAEC and increase secretion of proinflammatory cytokines IL-8 and IL-6 into media in similar fashions.

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