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Articles by D. J Tester
Total Records ( 2 ) for D. J Tester
  A. L Vega , D. J Tester , M. J Ackerman and J. C. Makielski
 

Background— KCNJ2 encodes Kir2.1, a pore-forming subunit of the cardiac inward rectifier current, IK1. KCNJ2 mutations are associated with Andersen-Tawil syndrome and catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia. The aim of this study was to characterize the biophysical and cellular phenotype of a KCNJ2 missense mutation, V227F, found in a patient with catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia.

Methods and Results— Kir2.1-wild-type (WT) and V227F channels were expressed individually and together in Cos-1 cells to measure IK1 by voltage clamp. Unlike typical Andersen-Tawil syndrome-associated KCNJ2 mutations, which show dominant negative loss of function, Kir2.1WT+V227F coexpression yielded IK1 indistinguishable from Kir2.1-WT under basal conditions. To simulate catecholamine activity, a protein kinase A (PKA)-stimulating cocktail composed of forskolin and 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine was used to increase PKA activity. This PKA-simulated catecholaminergic stimulation caused marked reduction of outward IK1 compared with Kir2.1-WT. PKA-induced reduction in IK1 was eliminated by mutating the phosphorylation site at serine 425 (S425N).

Conclusions— Heteromeric Kir2.1-V227F and WT channels showed an unusual latent loss of function biophysical phenotype that depended on PKA-dependent Kir2.1 phosphorylation. This biophysical phenotype, distinct from typical Andersen-Tawil syndrome mutations, suggests a specific mechanism for PKA-dependent IK1 dysfunction for this KCNJ2 mutation, which correlates with adrenergic conditions underlying the clinical arrhythmia.

  J Cheng , D. W Van Norstrand , A Medeiros Domingo , C Valdivia , B. h Tan , B Ye , S Kroboth , M Vatta , D. J Tester , C. T January , J. C Makielski and M. J. Ackerman
 

Background— Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is a leading cause of death during the first 6 months after birth. About 5% to 10% of SIDS may stem from cardiac channelopathies such as long-QT syndrome. We recently implicated mutations in 1-syntrophin (SNTA1) as a novel cause of long-QT syndrome, whereby mutant SNTA1 released inhibition of associated neuronal nitric oxide synthase by the plasma membrane Ca-ATPase PMCA4b, causing increased peak and late sodium current (INa) via S-nitrosylation of the cardiac sodium channel. This study determined the prevalence and functional properties of SIDS-associated SNTA1 mutations.

Methods and Results— Using polymerase chain reaction, denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography, and DNA sequencing of SNTA1’s open reading frame, 6 rare (absent in 800 reference alleles) missense mutations (G54R, P56S, T262P, S287R, T372M, and G460S) were identified in 8 (3%) of 292 SIDS cases. These mutations were engineered using polymerase chain reaction–based overlap extension and were coexpressed heterologously with SCN5A, neuronal nitric oxide synthase, and PMCA4b in HEK293 cells. INa was recorded using the whole-cell method. A significant 1.4- to 1.5-fold increase in peak INa and 2.3- to 2.7-fold increase in late INa compared with controls was evident for S287R-, T372M-, and G460S-SNTA1 and was reversed by a neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitor. These 3 mutations also caused a significant depolarizing shift in channel inactivation, thereby increasing the overlap of the activation and inactivation curves to increase window current.

Conclusions— Abnormal biophysical phenotypes implicate mutations in SNTA1 as a novel pathogenic mechanism for the subset of channelopathic SIDS. Functional studies are essential to distinguish pathogenic perturbations in channel interacting proteins such as 1-syntrophin from similarly rare but innocuous ones.

 
 
 
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