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Articles by D. J Paik
Total Records ( 1 ) for D. J Paik
  S Kim , J. Y Yang , K Lee , K. H Oh , M Gi , J. M Kim , D. J Paik , S Hong and J. Youn
 

Peripheral naive CD4+ T cells selectively differentiate to type 1 Th, type 2 Th and IL-17-producing Th (Th17) cells, depending on the priming conditions. Since these subsets develop antagonistically to each other to elicit subset-specific adaptive immune responses, balance between these subsets can regulate the susceptibility to diverse immune diseases. The present study was undertaken to determine whether poly--glutamic acid (-PGA), an edible and safe exopolymer that is generated by microorganisms such as Bacillus subtilis, could modulate the development pathways of Th subsets. The presence of -PGA during priming promoted the development of Th1 and Th17 cells but inhibited development of Th2 cells. -PGA up-regulated the expression of T-bet and ROR-t, the master genes of Th1 and Th17 cells, respectively, whereas down-regulating the level of GATA-3, the master gene of Th2 cells. -PGA induced the expression of IL-12p40, CD80 and CD86 in dendritic cells (DC) and macrophages in a Toll-like receptor-4-dependent manner, and the effect of -PGA on Th1/Th2 development was dependent on the presence of antigen-presenting cells (APC). Furthermore, -PGA-stimulated DC favored the polarization of naive CD4+ T cells toward Th1 cells rather than Th2 cells. In contrast, -PGA affected Th17 cell development, regardless of the presence or absence of APC. Thus, these data demonstrate that -PGA has the potential to regulate the development pathways of naive CD4+ T cells through APC-dependent and -independent mechanisms and to be applicable to treating Th2-dominated diseases.

 
 
 
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