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Articles by D. J Hunter
Total Records ( 8 ) for D. J Hunter
  F. W Roemer , A Guermazi , Y Zhang , M Yang , D. J Hunter , M. D Crema and K. Bohndorf
 

OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this study was to compare synovitis-like signal changes in Hoffa's fat pad on unenhanced proton density–weighted fat-suppressed sequences with signal alterations in Hoffa's fat pad and peripatellar synovial thickening on T1-weighted fat-suppressed contrast-enhanced sequences in patients with osteoarthritis.

SUBJECTS AND METHODS. Fifty patients with osteoarthritis of the knee participated in the study. MRI was performed with triplanar proton density–weighted fat-suppressed sequences and a sagittal T1-weighted fat-suppressed contrast-enhanced sequence. Signal intensity alterations in Hoffa's fat pad were scored semiquantitatively on unenhanced and contrast-enhanced images by two radiologists in consensus. Peripatellar synovial thickness was measured on the T1-weighted fat-suppressed contrast-enhanced images in six locations. Agreement between scoring of signal changes on unenhanced and contrast-enhanced sequences was assessed with kappa statistics. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of scoring of signal-intensity changes on unenhanced images were calculated with T1-weighted contrast-enhanced MRI as the reference standard. In addition, we also examined the relation between signal changes and summed synovial thickness using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient.

RESULTS. Agreement between unenhanced and contrast-enhanced MRI was fair to moderate (weighted = 0.35 and 0.45). The sensitivity of signal intensity changes in Hoffa's fat pad on proton density–weighted fat-suppressed images was high, but specificity was low. Correlations of signal intensity changes in Hoffa's fat pad with synovial thickness were lower for unenhanced scans but all were statistically significant.

CONCLUSION. Signal intensity alterations in Hoffa's fat pad on unenhanced images do not always represent synovitis but are a nonspecific albeit sensitive finding. Semiquantitative scoring of synovitis of the patellofemoral region in osteoarthritis ideally should be performed with T1-weighted contrast-enhanced sequences and should include scoring of synovial thickness.

  A. A Arslan , K. J Helzlsouer , C Kooperberg , X. O Shu , E Steplowski , H. B Bueno de Mesquita , C. S Fuchs , M. D Gross , E. J Jacobs , A. Z LaCroix , G. M Petersen , R. Z Stolzenberg Solomon , W Zheng , D Albanes , L Amundadottir , W. R Bamlet , A Barricarte , S. A Bingham , H Boeing , M. C Boutron Ruault , J. E Buring , S. J Chanock , S Clipp , J. M Gaziano , E. L Giovannucci , S. E Hankinson , P Hartge , R. N Hoover , D. J Hunter , A Hutchinson , K. B Jacobs , P Kraft , S. M Lynch , J Manjer , J. E Manson , A McTiernan , R. R McWilliams , J. B Mendelsohn , D. S Michaud , D Palli , T. E Rohan , N Slimani , G Thomas , A Tjonneland , G. S Tobias , D Trichopoulos , J Virtamo , B. M Wolpin , K Yu , A Zeleniuch Jacquotte and A. V. Patel
 

Background  Obesity has been proposed as a risk factor for pancreatic cancer.

Methods  Pooled data were analyzed from the National Cancer Institute Pancreatic Cancer Cohort Consortium (PanScan) to study the association between prediagnostic anthropometric measures and risk of pancreatic cancer. PanScan applied a nested case-control study design and included 2170 cases and 2209 control subjects. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using unconditional logistic regression for cohort-specific quartiles of body mass index (BMI [calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared]), weight, height, waist circumference, and waist to hip ratio as well as conventional BMI categories (underweight, <18.5; normal weight, 18.5-24.9; overweight, 25.0-29.9; obese, 30.0-34.9; and severely obese, ≥35.0). Models were adjusted for potential confounders.

Results  In all of the participants, a positive association between increasing BMI and risk of pancreatic cancer was observed (adjusted OR for the highest vs lowest BMI quartile, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.12-1.58; Ptrend < .001). In men, the adjusted OR for pancreatic cancer for the highest vs lowest quartile of BMI was 1.33 (95% CI, 1.04-1.69; Ptrend < .03), and in women it was 1.34 (95% CI, 1.05-1.70; Ptrend = .01). Increased waist to hip ratio was associated with increased risk of pancreatic cancer in women (adjusted OR for the highest vs lowest quartile, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.31-2.69; Ptrend = .003) but less so in men.

Conclusions  These findings provide strong support for a positive association between BMI and pancreatic cancer risk. In addition, centralized fat distribution may increase pancreatic cancer risk, especially in women.

  D. A Schaumberg , D Chasman , M. A Morrison , S. M Adams , Q Guo , D. J Hunter , S. E Hankinson and M. M. DeAngelis
 

Objectives  The retinoic acid receptor (RAR)–related orphan receptor gene (RORA) is implicated as a candidate for age-related macular degeneration (AMD) through a previous microarray expression study, linkage data, biological plausibility, and 2 clinic-based cross-sectional studies. We aimed to determine if common variants in RORA predict future risk of neovascular AMD.

Methods  We measured genotypes for 18 variants in intron 1 of the RORA gene among 164 cases who developed neovascular AMD and 485 age- and sex-matched controls in a prospective, nested, case-control study within the Nurses' Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. We determined the incidence rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for neovascular AMD for each variant and examined interactions with other AMD-associated variants and modifiable risk factors.

Results  We identified one single-nucleotide polymorphism (rs12900948) that was significantly associated with increased incidence of neovascular AMD. Participants with 1 and 2 copies of the G allele were 1.73 (CI, 1.32-2.27) and 2.99 (CI, 1.74-5.14) times more likely to develop neovascular AMD. Individuals homozygous for both the G allele of rs12900948 and ARMS2 A69S had a 40.8-fold increased risk of neovascular AMD (CI, 10.1-164; P = .017). Cigarette smokers who carried 2 copies of the G allele had a 9.89-fold risk of neovascular AMD but the interaction was not significant (P = .08). We identified a significant AMD-associated haplotype block containing the single-nucleotide polymorphisms rs730754, rs8034864, and rs12900948, with P values for ACA = 1.16 x 10–9, ACG = 5.85 x 10–12, and GAA = .0001 when compared with all other haplotypes.

Conclusions  Common variants and haplotypes within the RORA gene appear to act synergistically with the ARMS2 A69S polymorphism to increase risk of neovascular AMD. These data add further evidence of a high level of complexity linking genetic and modifiable risk factors to AMD development and should help efforts at risk prediction.

  J. E Lee , S Mannisto , D Spiegelman , D. J Hunter , L Bernstein , P. A van den Brandt , J. E Buring , E Cho , D. R English , A Flood , J. L Freudenheim , G. G Giles , E Giovannucci , N Hakansson , P. L Horn Ross , E. J Jacobs , M. F Leitzmann , J. R Marshall , M. L McCullough , A. B Miller , T. E Rohan , J. A Ross , A Schatzkin , L. J Schouten , J Virtamo , A Wolk , S. M Zhang and S. A. Smith Warner
 

Fruit and vegetable consumption has been hypothesized to reduce the risk of renal cell cancer. We conducted a pooled analysis of 13 prospective studies, including 1,478 incident cases of renal cell cancer (709 women and 769 men) among 530,469 women and 244,483 men followed for up to 7 to 20 years. Participants completed a validated food-frequency questionnaire at baseline. Using the primary data from each study, the study-specific relative risks (RR) were calculated using the Cox proportional hazards model and then pooled using a random effects model. We found that fruit and vegetable consumption was associated with a reduced risk of renal cell cancer. Compared with <200 g/d of fruit and vegetable intake, the pooled multivariate RR for ≥600 g/d was 0.68 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 0.54-0.87; P for between-studies heterogeneity = 0.86; P for trend = 0.001]. Compared with <100 g/d, the pooled multivariate RRs (95% CI) for ≥400 g/d were 0.79 (0.63-0.99; P for trend = 0.03) for total fruit and 0.72 (0.48-1.08; P for trend = 0.07) for total vegetables. For specific carotenoids, the pooled multivariate RRs (95% CIs) comparing the highest and lowest quintiles were 0.87 (0.73-1.03) for -carotene, 0.82 (0.69-0.98) for β-carotene, 0.86 (0.73-1.01) for β-cryptoxanthin, 0.82 (0.64-1.06) for lutein/zeaxanthin, and 1.13 (0.95-1.34) for lycopene. In conclusion, increasing fruit and vegetable consumption is associated with decreasing risk of renal cell cancer; carotenoids present in fruit and vegetables may partly contribute to this protection. (Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2009;18(6):1730–9)

  K. L Penney , F. R Schumacher , H Li , P Kraft , J. S Morris , T Kurth , L. A Mucci , D. J Hunter , P. W Kantoff , M. J Stampfer and J. Ma
 

The role of selenium in prostate cancer (PCa) risk remains controversial, but many epidemiologic studies suggest an inverse association with more aggressive disease. A recently discovered selenoprotein, SEP15, which is highly expressed in the prostate, may play a role either independently or by modifying the effects of selenium. We genotyped four common single-nucleotide polymorphisms capturing common variation (frequency >5%; R2 > 0.8) within SEP15, as well as rs5859 in the 3' untranslated region, previously reported to reduce the efficiency of selenium incorporation into SEP15. We examined the association of these single-nucleotide polymorphisms with PCa risk and PCa-specific mortality, as well as their interactions with plasma selenium levels, in the Physicians' Health Study. In this nested case-control study (1,286 cases and 1,267 controls), SEP15 polymorphisms were not significantly associated with PCa risk. However, among the cases, three variants were significantly associated with PCa-specific mortality [rs479341 hazard ratio (HR), 1.94; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.15-3.25; rs1407131 HR, 2.85; 95% CI, 1.45-5.59; rs561104 HR, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.12-2.11] with a recessive model. Additionally, rs561104 significantly modified the association of plasma selenium with PCa survival (Pinteraction = 0.02); an inverse relationship of high levels of selenium with PCa mortality was apparent only among those without the increased risk genotype. This study provides evidence that SEP15 genetic variation may influence PCa mortality. Additionally, the association of selenium with PCa mortality was modified by a variant, suggesting the possibility that some men with PCa may benefit more from selenium than others, depending on their genotype. Cancer Prev Res; 3(5); 604–10. ©2010 AACR.

  L Dossus , R Kaaks , F Canzian , D Albanes , S. I Berndt , H Boeing , J Buring , S. J Chanock , F Clavel Chapelon , H. S Feigelson , J. M Gaziano , E Giovannucci , C Gonzalez , C. A Haiman , G Hallmans , S. E Hankinson , R. B Hayes , B. E Henderson , R. N Hoover , D. J Hunter , K. T Khaw , L. N Kolonel , P Kraft , J Ma , L Le Marchand , E Lund , P. H.M Peeters , M Stampfer , D. O Stram , G Thomas , M. J Thun , A Tjonneland , D Trichopoulos , R Tumino , E Riboli , J Virtamo , S. J Weinstein , M Yeager , R. G Ziegler and D. G. Cox
 

Genes involved in the inflammation pathway have been associated with cancer risk. Genetic variants in the interleukin-6 (IL6) and prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase-2 (PTGS2, encoding for the COX-2 enzyme) genes, in particular, have been related to several cancer types, including breast and prostate cancers. We conducted a study within the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium to examine the association between IL6 and PTGS2 polymorphisms and breast and prostate cancer risk. Twenty-seven polymorphisms, selected by pairwise tagging, were genotyped on 6292 breast cancer cases and 8135 matched controls and 8008 prostate cancer cases and 8604 matched controls. The large sample sizes and comprehensive single nucleotide polymorphism tagging in this study gave us excellent power to detect modest effects for common variants. After adjustment for multiple testing, none of the associations examined remained statistically significant at P = 0.01. In analyses not adjusted for multiple testing, one IL6 polymorphism (rs6949149) was marginally associated with breast cancer risk (TT versus GG, odds ratios (OR): 1.32; 99% confidence intervals (CI): 1.00–1.74, Ptrend = 0.003) and two were marginally associated with prostate cancer risk (rs6969502-AA versus rs6969502-GG, OR: 0.87, 99% CI: 0.75–1.02; Ptrend = 0.002 and rs7805828-AA versus rs7805828-GG, OR: 1.11, 99% CI: 0.99–1.26; Ptrend = 0.007). An increase in breast cancer risk was observed for the PTGS2 polymorphism rs7550380 (TT versus GG, OR: 1.38, 99% CI: 1.04–1.83). No association was observed between PTGS2 polymorphisms and prostate cancer risk. In conclusion, common genetic variation in these two genes might play at best a limited role in breast and prostate cancers.

  K. E Smith , C Bambra , K. E Joyce , N Perkins , D. J Hunter and E. A. Blenkinsopp
  Objective

To systematically review the available evidence on the impact of organizational partnerships on public health outcomes (health improvement and/or a reduction in health inequalities) in England between 1997 and 2008.

Design

Systematic review of quantitative (longitudinal before and after) and qualitative studies (1997–2008) reporting on the health (and health inequalities) effects of public health partnerships in England.

Data sources

Eighteen electronic databases (medical, social science and economic), websites, bibliographies and expert contacts.

Results

Only 15 studies, relating to six different interventions, met the review criteria and most of these studies were not designed specifically to assess the impact of partnership working on public health outcomes. Of the studies reviewed, only four included a quantitative element and they produced a mixed picture in terms of the impacts of partnership working. Qualitative studies suggested that some partnerships increased the profile of health inequalities on local policy agendas. Both the design of partnership interventions and of the studies evaluating them meant it was difficult to assess the extent to which identifiable successes and failures were attributable to partnership working.

Conclusion

This systematic review suggests that there is not yet any clear evidence of the effects of public health partnerships on health outcomes. More appropriately designed and timed studies are required to establish whether, and how, partnerships are effective.

  A Chatterjee , R. J Bosch , D. J Hunter , K Manji , G. I Msamanga and W. W. Fawzi
 

Vitamin A supplementation starting at 6 months of age is an important child survival intervention; however, not much is known about the association between vitamin A status before 6 months and mortality among children born to HIV-infected women. Plasma concentrations of vitamins A and B-12 were available at 6 weeks of age (n = 576 and 529, respectively) for children born to HIV-infected women and they were followed up for morbidity and survival status until 24 months after birth. Children in the highest quartile of vitamin A had a 49% lower risk of death by 24 months of age compared to the lowest quartile (HR: 0.51, 95% CI: 0.29–0.90; P-value for trend = 0.01). Higher vitamin A levels were protective in the sub-groups of HIV-infected and un-infected children but this was statistically significant only in the HIV-uninfected subgroup. Higher vitamin A concentrations in plasma are protective against mortality in children born to HIV-infected women.

 
 
 
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