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Articles by D. G Cummings
Total Records ( 2 ) for D. G Cummings
  T. J Smyth , J. R Fishwick , L AL Moosawi , D. G Cummings , C Harris , V Kitidis , A Rees , V Martinez Vicente and E. M. S. Woodward

The marine laboratories in Plymouth have sampled at two principle sites in the Western English Channel for over a century in open-shelf (station E1; 50° 02'N, 4° 22'W) and coastal (station L4; 50° 15'N, 4° 13'W) waters. These stations are seasonally stratified from late-April until September, and the variable biological response is regulated by subtle variations in temperature, light, nutrients and meteorology. Station L4 is characterized by summer nutrient depletion, although intense summer precipitation, increasing riverine input to the system, results in pulses of increased nitrate concentration and surface freshening. The winter nutrient concentrations at E1 are consistent with an open-shelf site. Both stations have a spring and autumn phytoplankton bloom; at station E1, the autumn bloom tends to dominate in terms of chlorophyll concentration. The last two decades have seen a warming of around 0.6°C per decade, and this is superimposed on several periods of warming and cooling over the past century. In general, over the Western English Channel domain, the end of the 20th century was around 0.5°C warmer than the first half of the century. The warming magnitude and trend is consistent with other stations across the north-west European Shelf and occurred during a period of reduced wind stress and increased levels of insolation (+20%); these are both correlated with the larger scale climatic forcing of the North Atlantic Oscillation.

  E. J Litt , N. J Hardman Mountford , J. C Blackford , G Mitchelson Jacob , A Goodman , G. F Moore , D. G Cummings and M. Butenschon

Understanding carbon fluxes in shelf systems is an important aspect of quantifying global carbon budgets. Three years of pCO2 observations are analysed from spring to autumn during 2005, 2007 and 2008 at L4, a seasonally stratified station in the Western English Channel. A general trend from low to high seawater pCO2 during each year was observed, punctuated by episodic low seawater pCO2 events. Air–sea CO2 flux dynamics derived from seawater pCO2 showed spring and summer to be times of atmospheric CO2 drawdown during stratified water conditions while autumn saw the breakdown of stratification and CO2 outgassing. The largest CO2 instantaneous drawdown was observed during high wind events. Seawater pCO2 at L4 is controlled by metabolic processes, solubility and advection processes, although to a varying extent between years. While tidal influence, movement of water masses and rapid phytoplankton blooms contribute to large pCO2 fluctuations between adjacent samples, distinct quasi-seasonal phases are observed due to the natural physical and biological cyclic controls on seawater pCO2.

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