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Articles by D. E Schones
Total Records ( 2 ) for D. E Schones
  C Zang , D. E Schones , C Zeng , K Cui , K Zhao and W. Peng
 

Motivation: Chromatin states are the key to gene regulation and cell identity. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) coupled with high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-Seq) is increasingly being used to map epigenetic states across genomes of diverse species. Chromatin modification profiles are frequently noisy and diffuse, spanning regions ranging from several nucleosomes to large domains of multiple genes. Much of the early work on the identification of ChIP-enriched regions for ChIP-Seq data has focused on identifying localized regions, such as transcription factor binding sites. Bioinformatic tools to identify diffuse domains of ChIP-enriched regions have been lacking.

Results: Based on the biological observation that histone modifications tend to cluster to form domains, we present a method that identifies spatial clusters of signals unlikely to appear by chance. This method pools together enrichment information from neighboring nucleosomes to increase sensitivity and specificity. By using genomic-scale analysis, as well as the examination of loci with validated epigenetic states, we demonstrate that this method outperforms existing methods in the identification of ChIP-enriched signals for histone modification profiles. We demonstrate the application of this unbiased method in important issues in ChIP-Seq data analysis, such as data normalization for quantitative comparison of levels of epigenetic modifications across cell types and growth conditions.

  A Barski , R Jothi , S Cuddapah , K Cui , T. Y Roh , D. E Schones and K. Zhao
 

Chromatin modifications have been implicated in the regulation of gene expression. While association of certain modifications with expressed or silent genes has been established, it remains unclear how changes in chromatin environment relate to changes in gene expression. In this article, we used ChIP-seq (chromatin immunoprecipitation with massively parallel sequencing) to analyze the genome-wide changes in chromatin modifications during activation of total human CD4+ T cells by T-cell receptor (TCR) signaling. Surprisingly, we found that the chromatin modification patterns at many induced and silenced genes are relatively stable during the short-term activation of resting T cells. Active chromatin modifications were already in place for a majority of inducible protein-coding genes, even while the genes were silent in resting cells. Similarly, genes that were silenced upon T-cell activation retained positive chromatin modifications even after being silenced. To investigate if these observations are also valid for miRNA-coding genes, we systematically identified promoters for known miRNA genes using epigenetic marks and profiled their expression patterns using deep sequencing. We found that chromatin modifications can poise miRNA-coding genes as well. Our data suggest that miRNA- and protein-coding genes share similar mechanisms of regulation by chromatin modifications, which poise inducible genes for activation in response to environmental stimuli.

 
 
 
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