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Articles by D. E Fisher
Total Records ( 2 ) for D. E Fisher
  X Zhao , C Graves , S. J Ames , D. E Fisher and R. A. Spanjaard

Retinoic acid (RA) induces growth arrest and differentiation of S91 murine melanoma cells and serves as a valuable model for this disease. RA acts through activation of RA receptors (RAR), which are members of the nuclear receptor superfamily of ligand-inducible transcription factors. Interestingly, differentiation is mediated by RAR, but not by RAR or RARβ, suggesting that RAR possesses unique and uncharacterized molecular properties. To address this question, DNA microarrays in combination with RAR isoform-specific agonists were employed to identify novel RAR target genes that may play a role in this process. Here, we identified and validated carbohydrate sulfotransferase 10 (CHST10) as a novel RAR target gene in S91 cells. The RAR-inducible CHST10 promoter was obtained, and two atypical, independently functioning RA response elements were identified in a 425 bp region. Surprisingly, this fragment is bound by RAR, but not by RAR or RARβ, thus providing a mechanism for the observed RAR-specific regulation. CHST10 is a sulfotransferase that forms HNK-1 glycan on neural cell adhesion proteins and glycolipids, and HNK-1 is thought to modulate cell adhesion and possibly metastasis. We show that CHST10 is also regulated by RAR in a significant subset of human melanoma cells, and three-dimensional cell culture migration assays suggest that CHST10 functions as a suppressor of invasiveness, but not proliferation, in these cells. Induction of CHST10 by RAR-activating retinoids may present a novel therapeutic strategy to inhibit invasiveness in a subset of melanoma patients. [Cancer Res 2009;69(12):5218–25]

  M. F Berger , J. Z Levin , K Vijayendran , A Sivachenko , X Adiconis , J Maguire , L. A Johnson , J Robinson , R. G Verhaak , C Sougnez , R. C Onofrio , L Ziaugra , K Cibulskis , E Laine , J Barretina , W Winckler , D. E Fisher , G Getz , M Meyerson , D. B Jaffe , S. B Gabriel , E. S Lander , R Dummer , A Gnirke , C Nusbaum and L. A. Garraway

Global studies of transcript structure and abundance in cancer cells enable the systematic discovery of aberrations that contribute to carcinogenesis, including gene fusions, alternative splice isoforms, and somatic mutations. We developed a systematic approach to characterize the spectrum of cancer-associated mRNA alterations through integration of transcriptomic and structural genomic data, and we applied this approach to generate new insights into melanoma biology. Using paired-end massively parallel sequencing of cDNA (RNA-seq) together with analyses of high-resolution chromosomal copy number data, we identified 11 novel melanoma gene fusions produced by underlying genomic rearrangements, as well as 12 novel readthrough transcripts. We mapped these chimeric transcripts to base-pair resolution and traced them to their genomic origins using matched chromosomal copy number information. We also used these data to discover and validate base-pair mutations that accumulated in these melanomas, revealing a surprisingly high rate of somatic mutation and lending support to the notion that point mutations constitute the major driver of melanoma progression. Taken together, these results may indicate new avenues for target discovery in melanoma, while also providing a template for large-scale transcriptome studies across many tumor types.

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