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Articles by D. C. Glahn
Total Records ( 4 ) for D. C. Glahn
  J. D Ragland , A. R Laird , C Ranganath , R. S Blumenfeld , S. M Gonzales and D. C. Glahn

OBJECTIVE: Episodic memory impairments represent a core deficit in schizophrenia that severely limits patients’ functional outcome. This quantitative meta-analysis of functional imaging studies of episodic encoding and retrieval tests the prediction that these deficits are most consistently associated with dysfunction in the prefrontal cortex. METHOD: Activation likelihood estimation (ALE) was used to perform a quantitative meta-analysis of functional imaging studies that contrasted patients with schizophrenia and healthy volunteers during episodic encoding and retrieval. From a pool of 36 potential studies, 18 whole-brain studies in standard space that included a healthy comparison sample and low-level baseline contrast were selected. RESULTS: As predicted, patients showed less prefrontal activation than comparison subjects in the frontal pole, dorsolateral and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex during encoding, and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex during retrieval. The ventrolateral prefrontal cortex encoding deficits were not present in studies that provided patients with encoding strategies, but dorsolateral prefrontal cortex deficits remained and were not secondary to group performance differences. The only medial temporal lobe finding was relatively greater patient versus comparison subject activation in the parahippocampal gyrus during encoding and retrieval. CONCLUSIONS: The finding of prominent prefrontal dysfunction suggests that cognitive control deficits strongly contribute to episodic memory impairment in schizophrenia. Memory rehabilitation approaches developed for patients with frontal lobe lesions and pharmacotherapy approaches designed to improve prefrontal cortex function may therefore hold special promise for remediating memory deficits in patients with schizophrenia.

  M. J Minzenberg , A. R Laird , S Thelen , C. S Carter and D. C. Glahn

Context  Prefrontal cortical dysfunction is frequently reported in schizophrenia. It remains unclear whether this represents the coincidence of several prefrontal region- and process-specific impairments or a more unitary dysfunction in a superordinate cognitive control network. Whether these impairments are properly considered reflective of hypofrontality vs hyperfrontality remains unresolved.

Objectives  To test whether common nodes of the cognitive control network exhibit altered activity across functional neuroimaging studies of executive cognition in schizophrenia and to evaluate the direction of these effects.

Data Sources  PubMed database.

Study Selection  Forty-one English-language, peer-reviewed articles published prior to February 2007 were included. All reports used functional neuroimaging during executive function performance by adult patients with schizophrenia and reported whole-brain analyses in standard stereotactic space. Tasks primarily included the delayed match-to-sample, N-back, AX-CPT, and Stroop tasks.

Data Extraction  Activation likelihood estimation modeling reported activation maxima as the center of a 3-dimensional gaussian function in the meta-analysis, with statistical thresholding and correction for multiple comparisons.

Data Synthesis  In within-group analyses, healthy controls and patients activated a similarly distributed cortical-subcortical network, prominently including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC), ventrolateral PFC, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and thalamus. In between-group analyses, patients showed reduced activation in the left dorsolateral PFC, rostral/dorsal ACC, left thalamus (with significant co-occurrence of these areas), and inferior/posterior cortical areas. Increased activation was observed in several midline cortical areas. Activation within groups varied modestly by task.

Conclusions  Healthy adults and schizophrenic patients activate a qualitatively similar neural network during executive task performance, consistent with the engagement of a general-purpose cognitive control network, with critical nodes in the dorsolateral PFC and ACC. Nevertheless, patients with schizophrenia show altered activity with deficits in the dorsolateral PFC, ACC, and mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus. Increases in activity are evident in other PFC areas, which could be compensatory in nature.

  M. F Green , J Lee , M. S Cohen , S. A Engel , A. S Korb , K. H Nuechterlein , J. K Wynn and D. C. Glahn

Context  Visual masking procedures assess the earliest stages of visual processing. Patients with schizophrenia reliably show deficits on visual masking, and these procedures have been used to explore vulnerability to schizophrenia, probe underlying neural circuits, and help explain functional outcome.

Objective  To identify and compare regional brain activity associated with one form of visual masking (ie, backward masking) in schizophrenic patients and healthy controls.

Design  Subjects received functional magnetic resonance imaging scans. While in the scanner, subjects performed a backward masking task and were given 3 functional localizer activation scans to identify early visual processing regions of interest (ROIs).

Setting  University of California, Los Angeles, and the Department of Veterans Affairs Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System.

Participants  Nineteen patients with schizophrenia and 19 healthy control subjects.

Main Outcome Measure  The magnitude of the functional magnetic resonance imaging signal during backward masking.

Results  Two ROIs (lateral occipital complex [LO] and the human motion selective cortex [hMT+]) showed sensitivity to the effects of masking, meaning that signal in these areas increased as the target became more visible. Patients had lower activation than controls in LO across all levels of visibility but did not differ in other visual processing ROIs. Using whole-brain analyses, we also identified areas outside the ROIs that were sensitive to masking effects (including bilateral inferior parietal lobe and thalamus), but groups did not differ in signal magnitude in these areas.

Conclusions  The study results support a key role in LO for visual masking, consistent with previous studies in healthy controls. The current results indicate that patients fail to activate LO to the same extent as controls during visual processing regardless of stimulus visibility, suggesting a neural basis for the visual masking deficit, and possibly other visual integration deficits, in schizophrenia.

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