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Articles by D Xie
Total Records ( 3 ) for D Xie
  B Yan , H Wang , D Xie , N Wakamatsu , M. S Anscher , M. W Dewhirst , R. E.J Mitchel , B. J Chen and C. Y. Li

Caspase-activated DNase (CAD), also called DNA fragmentation factor (DFF), is the enzyme responsible for DNA fragmentation during apoptosis, a hallmark of programmed cell death. CAD/DFF has been shown to suppress radiation-induced carcinogenesis by preventing genomic instability in cells. In this study, we have investigated the role of CAD in chemical carcinogenesis using CAD-null mice and two-stage model of skin carcinogenesis. After topical treatment of mouse skin with dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) as an initiator and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) as a promoting agent, there was a 4-fold increase in the number of papillomas per mouse and 50.8% increase in the incidence of papilloma formation in the CAD knockout mice compared with wild-type littermates. The papillomas in CAD-null mice grew faster and reached larger sizes. These data indicate that loss of CAD function enhances tumorigenesis induced by a chemical carcinogen in the DMBA/TPA two-stage model of skin carcinogenesis in mice.

  J. P Lash , A. S Go , L. J Appel , J He , A Ojo , M Rahman , R. R Townsend , D Xie , D Cifelli , J Cohan , J. C Fink , M. J Fischer , C Gadegbeku , L. L Hamm , J. W Kusek , J. R Landis , A Narva , N Robinson , V Teal , H. I Feldman and the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study Group

Background and objectives: The Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study was established to examine risk factors for the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients with CKD. We examined baseline demographic and clinical characteristics.

Design, setting, participants, & measurements: Seven clinical centers recruited adults who were aged 21 to 74 yr and had CKD using age-based estimated GFR (eGFR) inclusion criteria. At baseline, blood and urine specimens were collected and information regarding health behaviors, diet, quality of life, and functional status was obtained. GFR was measured using radiolabeled iothalamate in one third of participants.

Results: A total of 3612 participants were enrolled with mean age ± SD of 58.2 ± 11.0 yr; 46% were women, and 47% had diabetes. Overall, 45% were non-Hispanic white, 46% were non-Hispanic black, and 5% were Hispanic. Eighty-six percent reported hypertension, 22% coronary disease, and 10% heart failure. Mean body mass index was 32.1 ± 7.9 kg/m2, and 47% had a BP >130/80 mmHg. Mean eGFR was 43.4 ± 13.5 ml/min per 1.73 m2, and median (interquartile range) protein excretion was 0.17 g/24 h (0.07 to 0.81 g/24 h). Lower eGFR was associated with older age, lower socioeconomic and educational level, cigarette smoking, self-reported CVD, peripheral arterial disease, and elevated BP.

Conclusions: Lower level of eGFR was associated with a greater burden of CVD as well as lower socioeconomic and educational status. Long-term follow-up of participants will provide critical insights into the epidemiology of CKD and its relationship to adverse outcomes.

  D Xie , H Bai , L Liu , X Xie , J Ayello , X Ma and J. Zhang

Influenza affects most of the world's population annually, often causing a secondary infection, but pathological mechanisms of influenza virus infection remain unclear. We have found that influenza viruses have a selective preference for infecting monocytes and mature immune effector cells. This paper provides evidence that influenza virus infection increases the expression of granzyme B (GrB) in monocytes, activated T and B cells. All GrB+ cells had cytolytic function. GrB+CD62Lhigh central memory (TCM) cells were fast response population to virus infection when compared with GrB+CD62Llow population. The influenza virus-infected PBMC could be killed by GrB+ cells. We propose the following mechanism for influenza: (i) influenza virus within the respiratory tract overcomes humoral defenses; (ii) free virus is directly engulfed by the immune system effector cells and free virus also infects epithelial cells; (iii) virus-infected epithelial cells and the immune system cells are killed by cytotoxic cells. These indicated that an immune system that was combating a virus infection needs to sacrifice some of its immune system cells. Therefore, influenza viruses might temporally destroy the human immune system's line of defense, resulting in susceptibility to a secondary infection. This might be a prevalent mechanism existing in cell-mediated immune responses.

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