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Articles by D Williamson
Total Records ( 2 ) for D Williamson
  S Banerjee , D Williamson , N Habib , M Gordon and J. Chataway

Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability. Globally, 15 million people suffer a stroke each year, of whom more than 5 million die, and a further 5 million are left permanently disabled. Current treatment options offer modest benefits, and there is a pressing need for new and effective treatments.

Stem cell therapy is a well-established treatment modality for various haematological diseases, with its use now being explored in different disease processes, including various neurological diseases, as well as vascular conditions such as ischaemic heart disease and peripheral vascular disease. Promising results have been seen in animal models of stroke, with evidence of significant functional benefits. Translation to the bedside, however, is in its early stages. This review will discuss the scientific background to stem cell therapy in ischaemic stroke, including evidence from current clinical trials.

  M Chopra , L Jones , C Boulanger , J Benger , I Higginson , D Williamson , P Younge and G. Lloyd

Tracheal mucosal blood flow is impaired when tracheal tube cuff pressure is above 30 cm of water, with the potential for tracheal mucosal necrosis. Previous studies have found excessive cuff pressures in simulated patients intubated by North American emergency physicians as well as patients intubated in the prehospital setting and emergency department (ED). This study assessed whether patients intubated in a UK prehospital setting or ED had excessive cuff pressures.


Prospective observational study in five ED in southwest England over a 2-month period. All patients over 18 years and intubated in the prehospital setting or in the ED were included. Clinical staff independent of the patients' care recorded the following: age, sex, presenting complaint and indication for intubation, tube size and cuff pressure. Neither the paramedics nor the participating ED staff were aware of the study purpose. Cuff pressure measurements were recorded using a standardised cuff inflator pressure gauge.


61 patients were recruited. The median and mean cuff pressures were 58 and 62 cm of water, respectively. 75% of patients had a cuff pressure greater than 30 cm of water. The median cuff pressures in those patients intubated by senior emergency physicians, junior emergency physicians and paramedics were 70, 46 and 79 cm of water, respectively.


Excessive tracheal tube cuff pressures were demonstrated in the majority of patients intubated both in the prehospital setting and ED. This is in keeping with existing evidence. Early measurement and adjustment of cuff pressures is recommended for those patients who require ongoing care.

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