Asian Science Citation Index is committed to provide an authoritative, trusted and significant information by the coverage of the most important and influential journals to meet the needs of the global scientific community.  
ASCI Database
308-Lasani Town,
Sargodha Road,
Faisalabad, Pakistan
Fax: +92-41-8815544
Contact Via Web
Suggest a Journal
 
Articles by D Spiegelman
Total Records ( 4 ) for D Spiegelman
  J. E Lee , S Mannisto , D Spiegelman , D. J Hunter , L Bernstein , P. A van den Brandt , J. E Buring , E Cho , D. R English , A Flood , J. L Freudenheim , G. G Giles , E Giovannucci , N Hakansson , P. L Horn Ross , E. J Jacobs , M. F Leitzmann , J. R Marshall , M. L McCullough , A. B Miller , T. E Rohan , J. A Ross , A Schatzkin , L. J Schouten , J Virtamo , A Wolk , S. M Zhang and S. A. Smith Warner
 

Fruit and vegetable consumption has been hypothesized to reduce the risk of renal cell cancer. We conducted a pooled analysis of 13 prospective studies, including 1,478 incident cases of renal cell cancer (709 women and 769 men) among 530,469 women and 244,483 men followed for up to 7 to 20 years. Participants completed a validated food-frequency questionnaire at baseline. Using the primary data from each study, the study-specific relative risks (RR) were calculated using the Cox proportional hazards model and then pooled using a random effects model. We found that fruit and vegetable consumption was associated with a reduced risk of renal cell cancer. Compared with <200 g/d of fruit and vegetable intake, the pooled multivariate RR for ≥600 g/d was 0.68 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 0.54-0.87; P for between-studies heterogeneity = 0.86; P for trend = 0.001]. Compared with <100 g/d, the pooled multivariate RRs (95% CI) for ≥400 g/d were 0.79 (0.63-0.99; P for trend = 0.03) for total fruit and 0.72 (0.48-1.08; P for trend = 0.07) for total vegetables. For specific carotenoids, the pooled multivariate RRs (95% CIs) comparing the highest and lowest quintiles were 0.87 (0.73-1.03) for -carotene, 0.82 (0.69-0.98) for β-carotene, 0.86 (0.73-1.01) for β-cryptoxanthin, 0.82 (0.64-1.06) for lutein/zeaxanthin, and 1.13 (0.95-1.34) for lycopene. In conclusion, increasing fruit and vegetable consumption is associated with decreasing risk of renal cell cancer; carotenoids present in fruit and vegetables may partly contribute to this protection. (Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2009;18(6):1730–9)

  U. A Hvidtfeldt , J. S Tolstrup , M. U Jakobsen , B. L Heitmann , M Gronbaek , E O'Reilly , K Balter , U Goldbourt , G Hallmans , P Knekt , S Liu , M Pereira , P Pietinen , D Spiegelman , J Stevens , J Virtamo , W. C Willett , E. B Rimm and A. Ascherio
 

Background— Light to moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a reduced risk of coronary heart disease. This protective effect of alcohol, however, may be confined to middle-aged or older individuals. Coronary heart disease incidence is low in men <40 years of age and in women <50 years of age; for this reason, study cohorts rarely have the power to investigate the effects of alcohol on coronary heart disease risk in younger adults. This study examined whether the beneficial effect of alcohol on coronary heart disease depends on age.

Methods and Results— In this pooled analysis of 8 prospective studies from North America and Europe including 192 067 women and 74 919 men free of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and cancers at baseline, average daily alcohol intake was assessed at baseline with a food frequency or diet history questionnaire. An inverse association between alcohol and risk of coronary heart disease was observed in all age groups; hazard ratios among moderately drinking men (5.0 to 29.9 g/d) 39 to 50, 50 to 59, and ≥60 years of age were 0.58 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.36 to 0.93), 0.72 (95% CI, 0.60 to 0.86), and 0.85 (95% CI, 0.75 to 0.97) compared with abstainers. However, the analyses indicated a smaller incidence rate difference between abstainers and moderate consumers in younger adults (incidence rate difference, 45 per 100 000; 90% CI, 8 to 84) than in middle-aged (incidence rate difference, 64 per 100 000; 90% CI, 24 to 102) and older (incidence rate difference, 89 per 100 000; 90% CI, 44 to 140) adults. Similar results were observed in women.

Conclusion— Alcohol is also associated with a decreased risk of coronary heart disease in younger adults; however, the absolute risk was small compared with middle-aged and older adults.

  K Nosho , K Shima , N Irahara , S Kure , Y Baba , G. J Kirkner , L Chen , S Gokhale , A Hazra , D Spiegelman , E. L Giovannucci , R Jaenisch , C. S Fuchs and S. Ogino
 

Purpose: DNA methyltransferase-3B (DNMT3B) plays an important role in de novo CpG island methylation. Dnmt3b can induce colon tumor in mice with methylation in specific CpG islands. We hypothesized that cellular DNMT3B level might influence the occurrence of widespread CpG island methylation (i.e., the CpG island methylator phenotype, CIMP) in colon cancer.

Experimental Design: Utilizing 765 colorectal cancers in two cohort studies, we detected DNMT3B expression in 116 (15%) tumors by immunohistochemistry. We assessed microsatellite instability, quantified DNA methylation in repetitive long interspersed nucleotide element-1 (LINE-1) by Pyrosequencing, eight CIMP-specific promoters [CACNA1G, CDKN2A (p16), CRABP1, IGF2, MLH1, NEUROG1, RUNX3, and SOCS1], and eight other CpG islands (CHFR, HIC1, IGFBP3, MGMT, MINT1, MINT31, p14, and WRN) by real-time PCR (MethyLight).

Results: Tumoral DNMT3B overexpression was significantly associated with CIMP-high [≥6/8 methylated CIMP-specific promoters; odds ratio (OR), 3.34; 95% confidence interval, 2.11-5.29; P < 0.0001]. The relations between DNMT3B and methylation in 16 individual CpG islands varied substantially (OR, 0.80-2.96), suggesting variable locus-to-locus specificities of DNMT3B activity. DNMT3B expression was not significantly related with LINE-1 hypomethylation. In multivariate logistic regression, the significant relation between DNMT3B and CIMP-high persisted (OR, 2.39; 95% confidence interval, 1.11-5.14; P = 0.026) after adjusting for clinical and other molecular features, including p53, β-catenin, LINE-1, microsatellite instability, KRAS, PIK3CA, and BRAF. DNMT3B expression was unrelated with patient outcome, survival, or prognosis.

Conclusions: Tumoral DNMT3B overexpression is associated with CIMP-high in colorectal cancer. Our data support a possible role of DNMT3B in nonrandom de novo CpG island methylation leading to colorectal cancer.

  H Gardener , D Spiegelman and S. L. Buka
 

Background

The aetiology of autism is unknown, although prenatal exposures have been the focus of epidemiological research for over 40 years.

Aims

To provide the first quantitative review and meta-analysis of the association between maternal pregnancy complications and pregnancy-related factors and risk of autism.

Method

PubMed, Embase and PsycINFO databases were searched for epidemiological studies that examined the association between pregnancy-related factors and autism. Forty studies were eligible for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Summary effect estimates were calculated for factors examined in multiple studies.

Results

Over 50 prenatal factors have been examined. The factors associated with autism risk in the meta-analysis were advanced parental age at birth, maternal prenatal medication use, bleeding, gestational diabetes, being first born v. third or later, and having a mother born abroad. The factors with the strongest evidence against a role in autism risk included previous fetal loss and maternal hypertension, proteinuria, pre-eclampsia and swelling.

Conclusions

There is insufficient evidence to implicate any one prenatal factor in autism aetiology, although there is some evidence to suggest that exposure to pregnancy complications may increase the risk.

 
 
 
Copyright   |   Desclaimer   |    Privacy Policy   |   Browsers   |   Accessibility