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Articles by D Mozaffarian
Total Records ( 2 ) for D Mozaffarian
  C Robinson Cohen , R Katz , D Mozaffarian , L. S Dalrymple , I de Boer , M Sarnak , M Shlipak , D Siscovick and B. Kestenbaum
 

Background  Habitual physical activity (PA) has both physiologic and metabolic effects that may moderate the risk of kidney function decline. We tested the hypothesis that higher levels of PA are associated with a lower risk of kidney function decline using longitudinal data from a large cohort of older adults.

Methods  We studied 4011 ambulatory participants aged 65 or older from the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) who completed at least 2 measurements of kidney function over 7 years. We calculated a PA score (range, 2-8) by summing kilocalories expended per week (ordinal score of 1-5 from quintiles of kilocalories per week) and walking pace (ordinal score for categories of <2, 2-3, and >3 mph). Rapid decline in kidney function decline (RDKF) was defined by loss of more than 3.0 mL/min/1.73 m2 per year in glomerular filtration rate, which we estimated by using longitudinal measurements of cystatin C levels.

Results  A total of 958 participants had RDKF (23.9%; 4.1 events per 100 person-years). The estimated risk of RDKF was 16% in the highest PA group (score of 8) and 30% in the lowest PA group (score of 2). After multivariate adjustment, we found that the 2 highest PA groups (scores of 7-8) were associated with a 28% lower risk of RDKF (95% confidence interval, 21%-41% lower risk) than the 2 lowest PA groups (score of 2-3). Greater kilocalories of leisure-time PA and walking pace were also each associated with a lower incidence of RDKF.

Conclusion  Higher levels of PA are associated with a lower risk of RDKF among older adults.

  W. C Levy , K. L Lee , A. S Hellkamp , J. E Poole , D Mozaffarian , D. T Linker , A. P Maggioni , I Anand , P. A Poole Wilson , D. P Fishbein , G Johnson , J Anderson , D. B Mark and G. H. Bardy
 

Background— Although implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) therapy reduces mortality in moderately symptomatic heart failure patients with an ejection fraction ≤35%, many such patients do not require ICD shocks over long-term follow-up.

Methods and Results— Using a modification of a previously validated risk prediction model based on routine clinical variables, we examined the relationship between baseline predicted mortality risk and the relative and absolute survival benefits of ICD treatment in the primary prevention Sudden Cardiac Death in Heart Failure Trial (SCD-HeFT). In the placebo arm, predicted 4-year mortality grouped into 5 equal-sized risk groups varied from 12% to 50% (c statistic=0.71), whereas the proportion of SCD in those same risk groups decreased from 52% to 24% of all deaths. ICD treatment decreased relative risk of SCD by 88% in the lowest-risk group versus 24% in the highest-risk group (P=0.009 for interaction) and decreased relative risk of total mortality by 54% in the lowest-risk group versus no benefit (2%) in the highest-risk group (P=0.014 for interaction). Absolute 4-year mortality reductions were 6.6%, 8.8%, 10.6%, 14.0%, and –4.9% across risk quintiles. In highest-risk patients (predicted annual mortality >20%), no benefit of ICD treatment was seen. Projected over each patient’s predicted lifespan, ICD treatment added 6.3, 4.1, 3.0, 1.9, and 0.2 additional years of life in the lowest- to highest-risk groups, respectively.

Conclusions— A clinical risk prediction model identified subsets of moderately symptomatic heart failure patients in SCD-HeFT in whom single-lead ICD therapy was of no benefit and other subsets in which benefit was substantial.

 
 
 
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