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Articles by D Hwang
Total Records ( 2 ) for D Hwang
  J. C Mavropoulos , W. C Buschemeyer , A. K Tewari , D Rokhfeld , M Pollak , Y Zhao , P. G Febbo , P Cohen , D Hwang , G Devi , W Demark Wahnefried , E. C Westman , B. L Peterson , S. V Pizzo and S. J. Freedland

Purpose: Numerous dietary factors elevate serum levels of insulin and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), both potent prostate cancer mitogens. We tested whether varying dietary carbohydrate and fat, without energy restriction relative to comparison diets, would slow tumor growth and reduce serum insulin, IGF-I, and other molecular mediators of prostate cancer in a xenograft model.

Experimental Design: Individually caged male severe combined immunodeficient mice (n = 130) were randomly assigned to one of three diets (described as percent total calories): very high-fat/no-carbohydrate ketogenic diet (NCKD: 83% fat, 0% carbohydrate, 17% protein), low-fat/high-carbohydrate diet (LFD: 12% fat, 71% carbohydrate, 17% protein), or high-fat/moderate-carbohydrate diet (MCD: 40% fat, 43% carbohydrate, 17% protein). Mice were fed to maintain similar average body weights among groups. Following a preliminary feeding period, mice were injected with 1 x 106 LNCaP cells (day 0) and sacrificed when tumors were ≥1,000 mm3.

Results: Two days before tumor injection, median NCKD body weight was 2.4 g (10%) and 2.1 g (8%) greater than the LFD and MCD groups, respectively (P < 0.0001). Diet was significantly associated with overall survival (log-rank P = 0.004). Relative to MCD, survival was significantly prolonged for the LFD (hazard ratio, 0.49; 95% confidence interval, 0.29-0.79; P = 0.004) and NCKD groups (hazard ratio, 0.59; 95% confidence interval, 0.37-0.93; P = 0.02). Median serum insulin, IGF-I, IGF-I/IGF binding protein-1 ratio, and IGF-I/IGF binding protein-3 ratio were significantly reduced in NCKD relative to MCD mice. Phospho-AKT/total AKT ratio and pathways associated with antiapoptosis, inflammation, insulin resistance, and obesity were also significantly reduced in NCKD relative to MCD tumors.

Conclusions: These results support further preclinical exploration of carbohydrate restriction in prostate cancer and possibly warrant pilot or feasibility testing in humans.

  M Hirose , T Mukai , D Hwang and K. Iida

Hirose, M., Mukai, T., Hwang, D., and Iida, K. 2009. The acoustic characteristics of three jellyfish species: Nemopilema nomurai, Cyanea nozakii, and Aurelia aurita. – ICES Journal of Marine Science, 66: 1233–1237.

Reports about jellyfish damaging nets and reducing fish catches are increasing, and data on the abundance and distribution of various jellyfish species are needed to forecast where and when their blooms will happen. Acoustic techniques can be used to obtain this information if the acoustic characteristics of the targets are known. This is a study of acoustic scattering from three jellyfish species: Nemopilema nomurai (order Rhizostomeae), Cyanea nozakii (Semaeostomeae), and Aurelia aurita (Semaeostomeae). Target strength (TS) at 38, 120, and 200 kHz, specific density, and sound speed were measured with live specimens. Specific densities were measured using the displacement–volume–weight and the dual-density methods. The sound speeds were estimated using the time-of-flight method. The reduced TS (RTS), i.e. the TS normalized by bell area, was smaller for N. nomurai (bell diameter range 19–38 cm) than for C. nozakii (bell diameter range 30–40 cm), and the differences in RTS between the species were 17.8, 12.6, and 5.8 dB at 38, 120, and 200 kHz, respectively. The respective sound-speed contrast h and density contrast g were 1.0008 ± 0.009 (mean ± s.d.) and 1.004 ± 0.015 for N. nomurai; 1.038 and 1.073 for one C. nozakii; and 1.0001 ± 0.025 and 0.989 ± 0.019 for A. aurita.

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