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Articles by D Goltzman
Total Records ( 4 ) for D Goltzman
  L Kantham , S. J Quinn , O. I Egbuna , K Baxi , R Butters , J. L Pang , M. R Pollak , D Goltzman and E. M. Brown
 

The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) controls parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion, which, in turn, via direct and indirect actions on kidney, bone, and intestine, maintains a normal extracellular ionized calcium concentration (Ca2+o). There is less understanding of the CaSR's homeostatic importance outside of the parathyroid gland. We have employed single and double knockout mouse models, namely mice lacking PTH alone (CaSR+/+ PTH–/–, referred to as C+P), lacking both CaSR and PTH (CaSR–/– PTH–/–, CP) or wild-type (CaSR+/+ PTH+/+, C+P+) mice to study CaSR-specific functions without confounding CaSR-mediated changes in PTH. The mice received three hypercalcemic challenges: an oral Ca2+ load, injection or constant infusion of PTH via osmotic pump, or a phosphate-deficient diet. CP mice show increased susceptibility to developing hypercalcemia with all three challenges compared with the other two genotypes, whereas C+P mice defend against hypercalcemia similarly to C+P+ mice. Reduced renal Ca2+ clearance contributes to the intolerance of the CP mice to Ca2+ loads, as they excrete less Ca2+ at any given Ca2+o than the other two genotypes, confirming the CaSR's direct role in regulating renal Ca2+ handling. In addition, C+P+ and C+P, but not CP, mice showed increases in serum calcitonin (CT) levels during hypercalcemia. The level of 1,25(OH)2D3 in CP mice, in contrast, was similar to those in C+P and C+P+ mice during an oral Ca2+ load, indicating that increased 1,25(OH)2D3 production cannot account for the oral Ca2+-induced hypercalcemia in the CP mice. Thus, CaSR-stimulated PTH release serves as a "floor" to defend against hypocalcemia. In contrast, high-Ca2+o-induced inhibition of PTH is not required for a robust defense against hypercalcemia, at least in mice, whereas high-Ca2+o-stimulated, CaSR-mediated CT secretion and renal Ca2+ excretion, and perhaps other factors, serve as a "ceiling" to limit hypercalcemia resulting from various types of hypercalcemic challenges.

  D Panda , D Goltzman , H Juppner and A. C. Karaplis
 

Tuberoinfundibular peptide of 39 residues (TIP39) is a member of the parathyroid hormone (PTH) family of peptide hormones that exerts its function by interacting with the PTH type 2 receptor (PTH2R). Presently, no known function has been attributed to this signaling pathway in the developing skeleton. We observed that TIP39 and PTH2R were present in the newborn mouse growth plate, with the receptor localizing in the resting zone whereas ligand expression was restricted exclusively in prehypertrophic and hypertrophic chondrocytes. By 8 wk of life, PTH2R, and to a lesser degree TIP39, immunoreactivity was present in articular chondrocytes. We therefore sought to investigate the role of TIP39/PTH2R signaling in chondrocytes by generating stably transfected CFK2 chondrocytic cells overexpressing PTH2R (CFK2R). TIP39 treatment of CFK2R clones in culture inhibited their proliferation by restricting cells at the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle, coupled with decreased expression and activity of cyclin-dependent kinases Cdk2 and Cdk4, while p21, an inhibitor of Cdks, was upregulated. In addition, TIP39 treatment decreased expression of differentiation markers in these cells associated with marked alterations in extracellular matrix and metalloproteinase expression. Transcription of Sox9, the master regulator of cartilage differentiation, was reduced in TIP39-treated CFK2R clones. Moreover, Sox9 promoter activity, as measured by luciferase reporter assay, was markedly diminished after TIP39 treatment. In summary, our results show that TIP39/PTH2R signaling inhibits proliferation and alters differentiation of chondrocytes by modulating SOX9 expression, thereby substantiating the functional significance of this signaling pathway in chondrocyte biology.

  W Sun , H Xie , J Ji , X Zhou , D Goltzman and D. Miao
 

We used mice with targeted deletion of 25-hydroxyvitamin D 1-hydroxylase [1(OH)ase–/–] to investigate the effects of calcium and phosphorus on defects in the reproductive system of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D]-deficient female mice. The 1(OH)ase–/– mice and their wild-type littermates were fed either a normal diet or a rescue diet (high calcium, phosphate, and lactose) starting from weaning until 3 mo of age. We then determined serum calcium and phosphorus levels, assessed gonadotropin and gonadal hormone production, and evaluated folliculogenesis, corpus luteum formation, ovarian angiogenesis, uterus development, and fertility. Results showed that hypocalcemic and hypophosphatemic female 1(OH)ase–/– mice developed infertility accompanied by decreased estrogen and progestogen levels, elevated follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone levels, defects in follicular development and corpus luteum formation, uterine hypoplasia, and decreased ovarian expression of angiogenic factors including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), angiopoietin-1 and -2, and Tie-2. When serum calcium and phosphorus were normalized by the rescue diet, the defective reproductive phenotype in the female 1(OH)ase–/– mice, including the dysfunction in the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis, and ovarian angiogenesis were reversed. These results indicate that the infertility seen in 1,25(OH)2D-deficient mice is not a direct effect of active vitamin D deficiency on the reproductive system but is an indirect effect mediated by extracellular calcium and phosphorus.

  Z Awan , K Alwaili , A AlShahrani , L Langsetmo , D Goltzman and J. Genest
  BACKGROUND:

Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) due to mutations in the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) gene exhibit severe, premature aortic calcification in a gene-dosage, age-dependent fashion. We sought to determine potential associations with mineral and skeletal indices.

METHODS:

We obtained computed tomography (CT) scan aortic calcium scores (AoCSs) in 19 (age 49 [SD 14] years) FH patients heterozygous for the 15-kb deletion at the LDLR gene and examined associations with various indices of mineral and skeletal homeostasis.

RESULTS:

We found that mean bone mineral density (BMD) at the femoral neck in these patients did not differ from age-, sex-, and province-matched mean BMD, and we observed no association of AoCS with any marker of bone resorption. However, there were negative correlations between AoCS and serum concentrations of osteocalcin, a marker of bone formation (r = –0.64, P = 0.0034), urinary calcium (r = –0.59, P = 0.0085), and estimated glomerular filtration rate (r = –0.67, P = 0.0019).

CONCLUSIONS:

We found that LDLR-deficient FH was not associated with obvious bone loss or a major disturbance in calcium homeostasis. The lack of LDLR, however, may modify osteoblast function or extracellular calcium distribution, manifesting as lower bone formation, and reduced calcium excretion, resulting in increased deposition in calcifying vascular tissue.

 
 
 
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