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Articles by Cristobal N. Aguilar
Total Records ( 3 ) for Cristobal N. Aguilar
  Heliodoro de la Garza , Juan Buenrostro , Maria Reyes-Vega , Raul Rodriguez , Dolores G. Martinez and Cristobal N. Aguilar
  Problem statement: Sotol is a distilled spirit made from Dasylirion spp., a plant (called sotol) that grows in the wilds of Northern Mexico and west Texas and New Mexico. This alcoholic beverage is produced in a similar process to the more common artisanal tequila and mescal. Sotol is also now beginning to achieve international recognition; however there are few commercial examples available, which are elaborated with poor quality and sensorial attributes un-defined. Approach: This is the first study which reported a chemical characterization of the main components of six commercial sotols, establishing the correlations among the samples and determining the similitude levels. Solid Phase Microextraction-Gas Chromatography (SPME-GC) was used to analyze the chemical compounds present in the sotols (HaciendaTM, MestenoTM, Coyamito, Los Cuates, un-aged Alacrán and rested Alacran). Results: From data obtained of the analysis of main components, a total of 25 chemical compounds were found to be related with six physicochemical characteristics of sotol, explaining 66.1% of the total variance. Rested Alacran and un-aged Alacran sotols were related by the high content of propionic acid, undecanoic acid, acetic acid, buthanol and furfural and by the low contents of phenyl ethanol, decanoic acid and ethyl dodecanoic acid. MestenoTM and Coyamito sotols presented an opposite chemical composition. HaciendaTM sotol contains high concentration of propanol, ethyl acetate, methyl butanol, hexadienal and low levels of ethyl decanoic acid and naftalene, chemical compounds do not found in Los cuates sotol. Conclusion: This study revealed for first time the chemical profile of the sotol demonstrating the necessity to improve the elaboration process of this alcoholic beverage to offer a Mexican product of high quality in the global market.
  Miguel A. Medina , Ruth E. Belmares , Antonio Aguilera-Carbo , Raul Rodriguez-Herrera and Cristobal N. Aguilar
  Problem statement: Many agro-industrial wastes have little or none utilization, when these materials could be a very rich source of several value-added compounds, such as: the pecan nut shells, which contain Antioxidant Phenolic (AP) molecules like tannins. Approach: In this study, a bioprocess for the liberation of AP from Pecan Nut Shells (PNS) was described. A chemical characterization of raw material was evaluated to determine polyphenolic content of PNS, among other components. Several fungal culture systems were evaluated at 96 h fermentation processes and using PNS as sole carbon source. Solid (SSC) and Submerged (SmC) fermentations were carried out using three strains of Aspergillus niger. Culture medium was composed of a solid (10-50%) and a liquid (90-50%) part in order to complete the 100% of the medium. Results: A high concentration (19%) of tannins was found in PNS on a dry basis, from which condensed tannins and their monomers were found as the main fraction (14%) of tannins of PNS, also on a dry basis. In the strain selection step, Aspergillus niger GH1 showed better growth on pecan nut shells compared to A. niger PSH strain, therefore, A. niger GH1 was used for later experiments. The highest concentration of AP was obtained with SSC inoculated with spores of A. niger GH1 on the 40% of solids system and in 20% solids system where, among the other systems both presented 114 mg TP g-1 of phenolics liberation at 24 h of fermentation. PNS is an important source of catechin, being this kind of compound which can be liberated in higher proportion compared to other phenolics compounds. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that fermenting PNS represent a good alternative to both use residues and obtaining AP.
  Marcela Hernandez-Suarez , Francisco Daniel Hernandez-Castillo , Gabriel Gallegos-Morales , R. Hugo Lira-Saldivar , Raul Rodriguez-Herrera and Cristobal N. Aguilar
  Problem statement: An option to reduce pollution by synthetic agro-chemical in root plant disease management is the use of antagonist rhizobacteria belonging to Bacillus genus, because their inhibitory properties, stimulation of plant growth and crop yield increase. Approach: This study was carried out in order to evaluate if Bacillus subtilis strains could play an antagonists role of plant pathogens and if they can be microencapsulated inside a biopolymer matrix. It was adapted an equipment and evaluated a technique for microcapsules elaboration, in order to incorporate B. subtilis strains and to analyze their potential as biocontrol agents by determining their antagonistic effect against pathogenic soil fungi; in addition, it was analyzed their effect on tomato plant growth promotion under greenhouse conditions. B. subtilis strains identified as B1, J1, M2 and their mixture were used; microcapsules containing bacterial strains were inoculated to tomato seeds cv. Floradade. When seedlings emerged, a second application of microcapsules containing B. subtilis was performed on the pots, which previously were inoculated with the fungi Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium oxysporum. Response variables were: Incidence and disease severity, plant growth, aerial and root dry weight, leaf area and fruit yield. Results: The outcome showed that the equipment designed and adapted for microcapsules elaboration was useful to obtain microcapsules containing the bacterial strains. B. subtilis strains exerted apparent biocontrol, since incidence and disease severity was reduced and for that reason inhibited the infective activity of the inoculated plant pathogens, also microcapsules containing Bacillus strains stimulated tomato growth and fruit yield. Conclusion: Microcapsules containing B. subtilis strains could be effective biocontrol agents against soil fungi plant pathogens and could have a potential biofertilizer effect, since they stimulated growth and yield of tomato plants compared to control.
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