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Articles by Clint Magill
Total Records ( 3 ) for Clint Magill
  Louis K. Prom , Ghada Radwan , Ramasamy Perumal , Hugo Cuevas , Seriba O. Katile , Thomas Isakeit and Clint Magill
  Background and Objective: Globally, grain mold is a major hurdle affecting sorghum productivity and quality. This disease is caused by complex fungal pathogens, among them Fusarium thapsinum and Curvularia lunata are the major fungi prevalent in many sorghum growing regions. This study examined the effect of inoculating a mixture of F. thapsinum and C. lunata on 60 sorghum converted lines with five adapted inbred lines as checks. Materials and Methods: Sorghum lines and checks were evaluated in field trials at the Texas AgriLife Research Station. Plants were inoculated with a mixture of F. thapsinum and C. lunata at 50% bloom. Results: The overall result showed that SC 725 (PI 534101), SC 218 (PI 534127), SC 691 (PI 534050), SC 91 (PI 534145) and Sureno exhibited grain mold severity of 2.3 or less. This level of grain mold infection was lower than the scores exhibited by the two resistant checks RTx 2911 (2.8) and SC 719-11E (2.5). Significant negative correlation (r = -0.385, p = 0.002) between grain mold and germination indicated the impact of these two fungi infection on germination rates. The significant negative correlation detected between germination and daily maximum temperature during the evaluation period shows planting of sorghum cultivars/hybrids that mature during periods of dry moderate weather will avoid problem of grain mold infection. Conclusion: The identified four converted lines for grain mold resistance in this study is recommended to use in breeding program to introgress grain mold resistance genes into other adapted sorghum inbred lines to increase the yield and seed quality traits.
  Louis K. Prom , Hugo Cuevas , Ramasamy Perumal , Thomas Isakeit and Clint Magill
  Background and Objective: Anthracnose incited by Colletotrichum sublineola is the most important foliar disease of sorghum worldwide. The hyper-variable nature of the pathogen requires continual evaluations of sorghum germplasm to identify sources with different resistance genes. Thus, this research was undertaken to determine the inheritance of two Sudanese lines PI570726 and PI569979 to pathotype 30 and BT×378 (Redlan) to pathotypes 30 (P30) and 35 (P35) of the anthracnose pathogen. Materials and Methods: Crosses between these three sorghum lines and a susceptible parent PI609251 were performed and the resulting F2 populations were evaluated in greenhouse. Seeds were planted in 1-gallon cans and 30 d post planting, plants were inoculated with the anthracnose pathotypes. Individual plants from each cross were scored based on a scale of 1-5, where 1 = No symptoms or chlorotic flecks on leaves; 2 = Hypersensitive reaction; 3, 4 and 5= Infected leaf lesions with acervuli formation. Results: Chi-square test for the F2 populations of BT×378×PI609251 against P30 and P35, segregated in the expected Mendelian ratio 3 (resistant): 1(susceptible) fashion, indicating that resistance in BT×378 to P30 and P35 of C. sublineola obtained from the USA is governed by a single dominant gene. Segregation analysis for the PI569979×PI609251 and PI570726×PI609251 F2 populations revealed 1:3 ratio of resistance to susceptible, indicating that resistance in PI569979 and PI570726 to P30 was conditioned by a recessive trait. Conclusion: Resistance in the sorghum line BT×378 was shown to be dominant and will therefore be more desirable for use in breeding for anthracnose resistance, especially in sorghum hybrid production.
  Louis Kajac Prom , Haougui Adamou , Adamou Issa , Abdoulaye Abdoulaye Abdoulkadri , Karimou Issa , Ali Outani Bibata and Clint Magill
  Background and Objective: In Niger, sorghum ranks second as the most important cereal after pearl millet and is used primarily as a staple food and fodder. In 2019, an extensive survey of the occurrence and distribution of foliar and panicle diseases affecting sorghum in farmers’ fields from major production regions of Niger was conducted. Materials and Methods: A total of 121 fields in the regions of Tillabéri, Tahoua, Dosso and Maradi along paved and unpaved roads, including National and Secondary (RN1, RN2, RN3) were surveyed. In each field, 60 plants at late flowering to hard dough stages of development were assessed using a W-shaped pattern. Results: The study documented 21 different sorghum diseases, including anthracnose, long smut, oval leaf spot, leaf blight, head smut and zonate leaf spot. The most prevalent diseases were anthracnose, leaf blight, oval leaf spot, rough leaf spot and long smut. The highest mean incidence of anthracnose, leaf blight and rough leaf spot was recorded from Maradi, whereas, the regions of Dosso and Tahoua exhibited the highest mean oval leaf spot incidence. The highest incidence of long smut and zonate leaf spot was recorded in fields in Dosso region. Locations with highest incidence of these diseases can be considered ‘hot spots’ for resistance evaluations. Conclusion: This study is significant because for the 1st time it provides researchers, funding and governmental agencies in Niger a guide on the occurrence, distribution, prevalence and ‘hot spots’ for sorghum diseases.
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