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Articles by Chusnul Hanim
Total Records ( 4 ) for Chusnul Hanim
  Theresia Nur Indah Koni , Zuprizal , Rusman and Chusnul Hanim
  Background and Objective: Amorphophallus campanulatus (AC) can be used for food and as animal feed but its utilization is limited because of the high content of oxalate and low crude protein it contains. Fermentation by oxalolytic bacteria such as Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis), which produce the oxalate decarboxylase enzyme, has been used to improve the nutritive value of AC. The present study was conducted to improve the nutritive quality of AC through fermentation using Bacillus subtilis. Materials and Methods: AC was incubated for three different lengths of time 7, 14 and 21 days with 3 replicates of each treatment. The parameters observed included the dry matter, crude protein, fat and fiber contents, as well as Ca, P and oxalate contents. Data obtained were subjected to analysis of variance using a completely randomized design. Results: Results showed that the length of the incubation period significantly affected oxalate content (p<0.05). Fermentation with Bacillus subtilis decreased the oxalate content of Amorphophallus by 53.2, 50.4 and 41.2% at 7, 14 and 21 days of incubation time, respectively, when compared with raw Amorphophallus (315.8 mg/100 g) and increased crude fat content (p<0.05). Additionally, the lowest crude fat was found in AC with 14 days of incubation time. However, there were no significant effects on dry matter, crude protein, crude fiber, Ca and P (p>0.05). Conclusion: Fermentation using Bacillus subtilis with an incubation length of 7 days was the best treatment for improving the nutrient value of AC.
  Theresia Nur Indah Koni , Rusman , Chusnul Hanim and Zuprizal
  Background and Objective: Bacillus subtilis is a bacterium that can produce the oxalate decarboxylase (ODC) enzyme. This enzyme decomposes oxalate. ODC enzyme activity is influenced by temperature and pH. This study was conducted to determine the optimum pH and temperature for ODC enzyme activity in B. subtilis FNCC 0059. Materials and Methods: B. subtilis was cultivated in oxalate medium at different incubation temperatures for 24 h. The tested temperatures were 25, 29, 33, 37, 41 and 45°C. In separate experiments, cultures were grown in oxalate medium at varying pH from 4-8.5. The cell growth assay and enzyme activity were performed and all the experiments were done with 3 replicates. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance. Results: The optimum temperature of 37°C could produce maximum ODC enzyme activity (0.041 U mL–1) enzyme activity increased to the point of the optimum pH and then decreased 5.6% when the pH was increased 0.5 from the optimum. Maximum ODC enzyme activity (0.0413 U mL–1) was achieved at pH 5.5. Conclusion: Temperature and the pH of the medium affected ODC enzyme activity. Optimum medium condition of B. subtilis was reached at 37°C and pH 5.5.
  Theresia Nur Indah Koni , Rusman , Chusnul Hanim and Zuprizal
  Background and Objective: The nutrient and anti-nutrient compositions of a foodstuff affects its utilization as food or feed. The nutrient contents of food ingredients are affected by the environmental conditions in which the plant was grown and oxalate in a foodstuff limits its utilization and exerts a negative effect on consumers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutrient value, minerals and anti-nutrient values in Amorphophallus campanulatus (A. campanulatus). Materials and Methods: The A. campanulatus tubers were collected from East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia and then cleaned, peeled, chopped, sun-dried for 2 days (at 30-32°C), milled into powder and then analyzed for the proximate and anti-nutrient contents. Results: The nutrient content of A. campanulatus flour included crude protein (1.126±0.101%), crude fat (1.173±0%) and crude fiber (3.447±0.142%). The detected minerals included P (1443.33±34.185 mg kg–1), Ca (8535.76±543.75 mg kg–1) and Mg (1512.39±89.28 mg kg–1). Anti-nutrient analysis indicated the presence of oxalates (318.51±3.2 mg kg–1), tannins (0.46±0.04%), cyanide (35878±0.402 ppm) and phytates (0.165±0.015%). Conclusion: These results revealed that A. campanulatus was high in mineral content but low in anti-nutrient content, so it can be used for food or feed.
  Zainal Choiri , N. Danar Dono , Bambang Ariyadi , Chusnul Hanim , Ronny Martien and Zuprizal
  Objective: This study aimed to analyze the effect of nano-encapsulation of noni (Morinda citrifolia) fruit extract in drinking water on antibacterial activity and the morphology of intestinal villi in laying hens. Materials and Methods: The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design consisting of 6 treatments and 5 replicates, with 12 chickens (20 weeks) in each replicate pen. The treatments were: P0 = Water without an additive (negative control), P1 = Water+50 mg/hen of tetracycline (positive control), P2 = Water+0.5% extract of noni fruit, P3 = Water+0.5% nano-encapsulation of noni fruit extract, P4 = Water+1% nano-encapsulation of noni fruit extract and P5 = Water+1.5% nano-encapsulation of noni fruit extract. At the end of the experiment (5 weeks), parameters included bacterial populations in the small intestine (Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Salmonella sp.) and the morphology of intestinal villi (villus height, villus width, crypt depth and villus height: Crypt depth) were observed. Data were analyzed statistically using one-way ANOVA. Orthogonal contrasts were used to analyze all data with significant differences. Results: The results showed that the addition of 1% nano-encapsulation of noni fruit extract in drinking water did not affect the morphology of the intestinal villi or the populations of Bacillus subtilis and Salmonella sp., but it reduced the population of Escherichia coli (p<0.05). Conclusion: Supplementation with nano-encapsulation of noni fruit extract in the drinking water of laying hens reduced colonization by Escherichia coli and might be used as an alternative to antibiotics in laying hens.
 
 
 
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