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Articles by Chinaka O. Nwaehujor
Total Records ( 2 ) for Chinaka O. Nwaehujor
  Chinaka O. Nwaehujor , Florence C. Nwinyi and Julius O. Ode
  Hepatotoxins constitute a serious health concern in both rural and urban population globally. Despite advances in medical research, the discovery of an ideal hepatoprotective agent remains a challenge. The present research sought to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of the crude methanol extract of Crinum jagus bulb as a step towards further detailed study to isolate the bioactive principles. Wistar rats were pre-challenged individually with a high dose of acetaminophen (paracetamol, 2000 mg kg-1) per os to induce hepatic damage prior to treatment. The control group was given distilled water (10 mL kg-1, p.o.) while one out of the other experimental rat groups was either treated with silymarin (50 mg kg-1, p.o.) or with a dose of C. jagus bulb extract (75, 150 and 300 mg kg-1). Pentobarbitone-induced sleeping time, the mean relative liver weight of individual rats, biochemical assay and histopathological lesions in the liver of the separate rat groups were assessed and compared to determine the extent of hepatic damage. The prolonged paracetamol-induced pentobarbitone sleeping time in untreated, control rats (145.2±1.4 min) was most remarkably reduced to 122.5±2.1 and 109.5±0.4 min in rats which were treated orally with 150 and 300 mg kg-1 of the extract respectively. The acetaminophen-mediated decrease in the mean relative liver weight of intoxicated rats was relatively reversed with 150 and 300 mg kg-1 of the extract. C. jagus bulb extract also demonstrated significant (p<0.05) potency at 150 and 300 mg kg-1 in reducing acetaminophen-induced increase in the rat serum transaminases (AST, ALT and ALP) and total bilirubin but with elevation in total serum protein values. Histopathology revealed that 2000 mg kg-1 of paracetamol induced severe necrosis of hepatocytes in untreated control rats. Treatment of the acetaminophen-challenged rats with silymarin (50 mg kg-1, p.o.) and C. jagus bulb extract (150 and 300 mg kg-1, p.o.) gave a better protection with regeneration of hepatocytes relative to the untreated control. Crinum jagus bulb extract seemed to have multiplicity of effects in regenerating parenchymal cells, hepatic microsomal enzymes with high antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. The bulb of C. jagus could be a potential source of potent hepatoprotective agents.
  Chinaka O. Nwaehujor , Okwoche J. Ode , Florence C. Nwinyi and Nkeiruka E. Udeh
  The hypoglycemic and anti-oxidant effects of the methanolic extract of Buchholzia coriacea fruits in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were investigated. It was tolerated up to dose of 2000 mg kg-1 orally in rats. Treatment with 150, 300 and 600 mg kg-1 of the extract induced significant (p<0.05) dose dependent decreases in the respective fasting blood glucose values of 6.61+2.14, 5.12+1.01 and 3.84+0.81 mmol L-1 from the initial mean value of 14.15±5.12 mmol L-1 when compared with the negative control. Glibenclamide (2 mg kg-1) however, lowered the fasting blood glucose to 3.51±0.75 mmol L-1. The serum concentrations of catalase and reduced glutathione were significantly (p<0.05) higher in rats treated with glibenclamide (2 mg kg-1) and various doses (150, 300 and 600 mg kg-1) of the extract in contrast to the values in negative control rats. The extract also decreased serum triglycerides and total serum cholesterol. The fruit extract dose dependently reduced lipid peroxidation in diabetic rats. The ability of scavenging free radicals was measured by DPPH reduction and Ferric Reducing/Antioxidant Power (FRAP) spectrophotometric assays. In the DPPH assay, the highest concentration (400 μg mL-1) of the extract produced 66% antioxidant activity compared to 80% with ascorbic acid at the same concentration. The FRAP value increased concentration dependently from 1.1 to 1.7 μM (100-400 μg mL-1) while ascorbic acid has a FRAP value of 2 μM at 1000 μg mL-1. The findings suggest that the extract could be a potential source of a novel anti-diabetic and antioxidant agent.
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