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Articles by Charles DeCarli
Total Records ( 4 ) for Charles DeCarli
  Clifford R. Jack , Frederik Barkhof , Matt A. Bernstein , Marc Cantillon , Patricia E. Cole , Charles DeCarli , Bruno Dubois , Simon Duchesne , Nick C. Fox , Giovanni B. Frisoni , Harald Hampel , Derek L.G. Hill , Keith Johnson , Jean-Francois Mangin , Philip Scheltens , Adam J. Schwarz , Reisa Sperling , Joyce Suhy , Paul M. Thompson , Michael Weiner and Norman L. Foster
  Background The promise of Alzheimer‘s disease biomarkers has led to their incorporation in new diagnostic criteria and in therapeutic trials; however, significant barriers exist to widespread use. Chief among these is the lack of internationally accepted standards for quantitative metrics. Hippocampal volumetry is the most widely studied quantitative magnetic resonance imaging measure in Alzheimer‘s disease and thus represents the most rational target for an initial effort at standardization. Methods and Results The authors of this position paper propose a path toward this goal. The steps include the following: (1) Establish and empower an oversight board to manage and assess the effort, (2) adopt the standardized definition of anatomic hippocampal boundaries on magnetic resonance imaging arising from the European Alzheimer‘s Disease Centers–Alzheimer‘s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative hippocampal harmonization effort as a reference standard, (3) establish a scientifically appropriate, publicly available reference standard data set based on manual delineation of the hippocampus in an appropriate sample of subjects (Alzheimer‘s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative), and (4) define minimum technical and prognostic performance metrics for validation of new measurement techniques using the reference standard data set as a benchmark. Conclusions Although manual delineation of the hippocampus is the best available reference standard, practical application of hippocampal volumetry will require automated methods. Our intent was to establish a mechanism for credentialing automated software applications to achieve internationally recognized accuracy and prognostic performance standards that lead to the systematic evaluation and then widespread acceptance and use of hippocampal volumetry. The standardization and assay validation process outlined for hippocampal volumetry was envisioned as a template that could be applied to other imaging biomarkers.
  Mark W. Logue , Holly Posner , Richard C. Green , Margaret Moline , L. Adrienne Cupples , Kathryn L. Lunetta , Heng Zou , Stephen W. Hurt , Lindsay A. Farrer and Charles DeCarli
  Background Recent pathological studies report vascular pathology in clinically diagnosed Alzheimer‘s disease (AD) and AD pathology in clinically diagnosed vascular dementia (VaD). We compared magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures of vascular brain injury (white matter hyperintensities [WMH] and infarcts) with neurodegenerative measures (medial-temporal atrophy [MTA] and cerebral atrophy [CA]) in clinically diagnosed subjects with either AD or VaD. We then examined relationships among these measures within and between the two groups and their relationship to mental status. Methods Semi-quantitative MRI measures were derived from blind ratings of MRI scans obtained from participants in a research clinical trial of VaD (N = 694) and a genetic epidemiological study of AD (N = 655). Results CA was similar in the two groups, but differences in the mean of MTA and WMH were pronounced. Infarcts were significantly associated with CA in VaD but not in AD; MTA and WMH were associated with CA in both. WMH was associated with MTA in both groups; however, MRI infarcts were associated with MTA in VaD but not with MTA in AD patients. MTA was strongly associated with Mini-Mental State Examination scores in both groups, whereas evidence of a modest association between WMH and Mini-Mental State Examination scores was seen in VaD patients. Conclusions MRI data from two dementia cohorts with differing dementia etiologies find that the clinical consequences of dementia are most strongly associated with cerebral and medial-temporal atrophy, suggesting that tissue loss is the major substrate of the dementia syndrome.
  Sarah Tomaszewski Farias , Dan Mungas , Danielle J. Harvey , Amanda Simmons , Bruce R. Reed and Charles DeCarli
  Background This study describes the development and validation of a shortened version of the Everyday Cognition (ECog) scales [Tomaszewski Farias et al. Neuropsychology 2008;22:531–44], an informant-rated questionnaire designed to detect cognitive and functional decline. Methods External, convergent, and divergent validities and internal consistency were examined. Data were derived from informant ratings of 907 participants who were either cognitively normal, had mild cognitive impairment (MCI), or had dementia. Results Twelve items were included in the shortened version (ECog-12). The ECog-12 strongly correlated with established functional measures and neuropsychological scores, only weakly with age and education, and demonstrated high internal consistency. The ECog-12 showed excellent discrimination between the dementia and normal groups (area under the receiver operator characteristic curve = 0.95, CI = 0.94–0.97), and showed promise in discriminating normal older adults from those with any cognitive impairment (i.e., MCI or dementia). Discrimination between the MCI and normal groups was poor. Conclusions The ECog-12 shows promise as a clinical tool for assisting clinicians in identifying individuals with dementia.
  Bradley T. Wyman , Danielle J. Harvey , Karen Crawford , Matt A. Bernstein , Owen Carmichael , Patricia E. Cole , Paul K. Crane , Charles DeCarli , Nick C. Fox , Jeffrey L. Gunter , Derek Hill , Ronald J. Killiany , Chahin Pachai , Adam J. Schwarz , Norbert Schuff , Matthew L. Senjem , Joyce Suhy , Paul M. Thompson , Paul M. Thompson and Clifford R. Jack
  The Alzheimer‘s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) three-dimensional T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) acquisitions provide a rich data set for developing and testing analysis techniques for extracting structural endpoints. To promote greater rigor in analysis and meaningful comparison of different algorithms, the ADNI MRI Core has created standardized analysis sets of data comprising scans that met minimum quality control requirements. We encourage researchers to test and report their techniques against these data. Standard analysis sets of volumetric scans from ADNI-1 have been created, comprising screening visits, 1-year completers (subjects who all have screening, 6- and 12-month scans), 2-year annual completers (screening, 1-year and 2-year scans), 2-year completers (screening, 6-months, 1-year, 18-months [mild cognitive impaired (MCI) only], and 2-year scans), and complete visits (screening, 6-month, 1-year, 18-month [MCI only], 2-year, and 3-year [normal and MCI only] scans). As the ADNI-GO/ADNI-2 data become available, updated standard analysis sets will be posted regularly.
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