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Articles by Charles S. Vairappan
Total Records ( 3 ) for Charles S. Vairappan
  Nagi A. AL-Haj , Nurmas I. Mashan , Mariana N. Shamsudin , Habsah Mohamad , Charles S. Vairappan and Zamberi Sekawi
  Problem statement: Antimicrobial resistance is the major problem of global dimensions with a significant impact on morbidity, mortality and healthcare-associated costs. The problem has recently been worsened by the steady increase in multiresistant strains and by the restriction of antibiotic discovery and development programs. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, pseudomonads and Escherichia coli are a major nosocomial and community-acquired pathogens for which few existing antibiotics are efficacious. The current study was conducted to investigate antibacterial activity of natural seaweed sources. Approach: Gracilaria changii Euchema denticulatum and sea cucumbers extracts against Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus pyogenes, Vibrio cholerae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Results: The Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) values and Minimal Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) values of methanol extract were used against all assayed bacteria. Results indicated that G. changii, E. denticulatum and sea cucumbers extracts must possess major antibacterial components against infectious microorganisms. Conclusion: The results obtained indicate that Gracilaria changii and Euchema denticulatum could be a source of natural products with antibiotic modifying activity to be used against multidrug resistant bacteria.
  Nurmas I. Mashan , Nagi A. Al-Haj , Mariana N. Shamsudin , Habsah Mohamad , Charles S. Vairappan and Zamberi Sekawi
  Polymerase Chain reaction amplification of DNA was performed to used to study the presence and effect of treated and untreated Stapylococcus aureus genes sav1017 and adaB with marine seaweeds Gracilaria changii and Euchema denticulatum. From the sequencing analysis, the changes were detected in the gene sequence of adaB and sav1017, genes after treated with either G. changii or E. denticulatum extract, which involved the substitution of the nucleotide base pair and insertion or deletion of the purine or pyrimidine base. The novel of this study is the extract of G. changii and E. denticulatum interrupting the important function in MRSA and non-MRSA isolates so that this pathogen cannot survive longer than usual. This significant finding can be applied to a medical treatment whereby both of these extracts can be used as an alternative treatment for the infection of S. aureus especially to overcome drug resistance treatment problems in MRSA strains.
  Nagi A. AL-Haj , Nurmas I. Masha , Mariana N. Shamsudin , Habsah Mohamad , Charles S. Vairappan and Zamberi Sekawi
  Methacillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamase (ESBL) organisms and Multiple Drug Resistant Organism (MDRO). Therefore, this study was designed to explore an alternative antibacterial product derived from seaweed extracts, Gracilaria changii and Euchema denticulatum, through the study of DNA and RNA encoding genes of interest in MRSA and non-MRSA. The target of this study is to amplification of several untreated and treated S. aureus and E. coli genes that are potentially involved in the antibacterial activities through RT-PCR assay. G. changii and E. denticulatum extracts showed inhibitory activity against S. aureus, several genes in this pathogen were chosen to study the effect of both seaweed extracts on the genes through PCR and RT-PCR analysis. However, the predicted inhibitory mechanism of both seaweeds extracts on mecA gene was not fully elucidated in the study. The investigation could scientifically proof the natural products to be potentially potent antibacterial agents.
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