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Articles by Charles O. Ochieng
Total Records ( 2 ) for Charles O. Ochieng
  Charles O. Ochieng and Brian O. Nandwa
  Highly reactive molecules (NO, O2», HOO») generated in biological systems are associated with initiation of degerative diseases. The antioxidants can reduce this risk. Fruits are one of the most important sources of antioxidants such as vitamins and phenolic phytochemicals. Vitex plants are wild tropical plant which has found wide application in traditional medicine and human food in the west and central African regions. This study was conducted to test antioxidant capacity, to compare the values of total phenolic and flavonoid contents and to estimate the proximate composition of three different fruits of Vitex species. The free radicals deactivating ability was measured using DPPH, NO scavenging assays and the reducing power tested by FRAP assay. Total phenolic content and flavonoid content were evaluated according to the Folin-Ciocalteu procedure and a colorimetric method, respectively. Vitex doniana and Vitex kiniensis extract showed high total phenol (601.40 and 719.83 mg GA/100 g FW, respectively) and flavonoid (2.35 and 2.09 μg RT/g extract) content and better reducing power by FRAP at 545.71 and 402.43 μMFe2+/100 g FW, respectively. The proximate compositions of the three fruits showed slight variation. The extracts demonstrated good scavenging activities against DPPH and NO assays which were not significantly different at (p<0.05). Thus these results suggest that extract three Vitex species may serve as potential source of natural antioxidant for food and nutraceautical application.
  Charles O. Ochieng , J. Ogweno Midiwo and P. Okinda Owuor
  Various parts of Gardenia ternifolia (leaves, roots and stem bark) have been reported by traditional healers as a remedy against malaria fever. The aerial parts are coated with shiny materials rich in flavonoid aglycones. The crude acetone wash of the aerial parts showed anti-plasmodial activity of IC50 values 1.06 and 0.94 μg mL-1 against chloroquine-resistant (W2) and chloroquine-sensitive (D6) strains of Plasmodium falciparum, respectively. Bioassay guided chromatographic separation of the crude extracts afforded five flavonoids; (naringenin-7-O-methylether, quercetin-4, 7-O-dimethylether, kaempferol-7-O-methylether, 4, 5-Dihydroxy-6, 7-dimethoxyflavanone, naringenin-4, 7-O-dimethyl-ether) and two steroids; (stigmasterol, β-sitosterol). The same crude acetone surface extract as well as the pure isolates showed moderate larvicidal effects against 2nd instar Ae. aegypti larvae. Naringenin-7-O-methyl-ether was the most potent principle.
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