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Articles by Charles I. Abramson
Total Records ( 9 ) for Charles I. Abramson
  Timothy J. Bowse , Charles I. Abramson and Dwayne Bennett
  Four pet chew treats from four different manufacturers were tested for digestibility using in vitro tests in artificial gastric (stomach) and intestinal juices. In vitro tests were selected to determine the digestibility of dog chews for humane reasons and were conducted under conditions that were designed to simulate the digestive system of dogs. The purpose of the tests was to rapidly and inexpensively determines the rate of degradation of a dog chew in the canine digestive tract to assess product safety for dogs. Dog chew pet treats that are swallowed whole, or in part, should degrade rapidly in the canine digestive system to prevent potentially dangerous blockage. Tests were conducted on one cm and one-half cm cubes of dog chew products. Results of the tests clearly indicated that one product outperformed all others in short-term (under 4 hrs) digestive tests. The Bone-A-Mint Wheat Free formula degraded more rapidly than all other products in tests simulating canine gastric and intestinal juices. Tests conducted in this study will form the basis of an in vitro procedure that can be used as an industry standard to asses the safety of pet chew treats.
  Charles I. Abramson , Jordan B. Singleton , Maritza K. Wilson , Paulo A. Wanderley , Francisco S. Ramalho and Lynnette M Michaluk
  Seven experiments were conducted. First, the influence of the consumption of different concentrations of the organic pesticide Bioganic® on mortality was assessed at 11 different time intervals in Africanized honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) as was direct application of the pesticide to the abdomen. Results indicated that the pesticide was not lethal to bees regardless of concentration at any intervals tested whether consumed directly or applied to the abdomen. Second, the effects of different concentrations of the pesticide on Pavlovian conditioning and complex learning were examined in harnessed foragers. Results suggest that the pesticide affected learning; however, this conclusion may be erroneous because the bees would not feed on the pesticide, thus making it impossible to properly assess Pavlovian conditioning and complex learning. Consequently, the effect of the agrochemical on complex learning was examined in free flying bees trained to land on targets. The results of free flying experiments indicated that bees did not avoid a target associated with the smell of the pesticide but did avoid the target if they had to drink the pesticide.
  Yong-Chiang Chang , Amauri B. Bartoszeck , Samir A. Madeira and Charles I. Abramson
  The cholinesterase inhibition effect of chlorpyrifos, a commercial insecticide, was tested by its antagonism to the acetylcholine inhibition effect of flaxedil in 30 isolated nerve-sartorius muscle preparations of the toad, compared with its antagonism in 30 isolated nerve cord-body wall muscle preparations of the earthworm. Inhibition and facilitation in this antagonism were measured by changes in depolarizing rate of toad endplate potential and in earthworm slow potential and by changes in interstimulus interval for evoking an action potential in toad preparations and a graded spike potential in earthworm preparations. Earthworm depolarizing rate (0.32 V sˉ1) in its normal Ringer was five times lower than that (1.50 V sˉ1) of toad under [Flaxedil]o = 3 x 10-3 g ccˉ1. Earthworm interstimulus interval (15.6 ms) in its normal Ringer was nine times longer than that (1.75 ms) of toad under [Flaxedil]o = 3 x 10-3 g ccˉ1. [Flaxedil]o between 3 x 10-4 g ccˉ1 and 5 x 10-4 g ccˉ1 attenuated 25% of toad depolarizing rate and 23% of earthworm depolarizing rate, 60% of toad interstimulus interval and eliminated the earthworm interstimulus interval almost entirely. Enhancement of toad depolarizing rate and interstimulus interval by chlorpyrifos between 5 x 10-4 g ccˉ1 and 10-2 g ccˉ1 after being attenuated by flaxedil was not significant but was significant in the earthworm preparation. Inhibition of earthworm cholinesterase by chlorpyrifos may be related to its lower neuromuscular excitability than that of the toad.
  Charles I. Abramson , Elis Aldana and Enrique Sulbaran
  The main vector of Chagas disease in Venezuela was exposed to the odors of citral, cinnamon and ruda. Cinnamon was found to stop the life cycle of Rhodnius prolixus relative to untreated animals. Citral and ruda also influenced the life cycle but not to the extent of animals exposed to cinnamon. We suggest that future research be directed toward using cinnamon in field and toxicity tests.
  Charles I. Abramson , Paulo A. Wanderley , Maria J. A. Wanderley , Alexandre J. S. Mina and Orlando Baracho de Souza
  The essential oil of plants is used as an alternative to pesticides for the control of aphids. We study the effect of the essential oils of citronella and alfazema on aphid populations in the laboratory and in the field. We also investigate the effect of these oils on the behavior of the aphid’s principal predator the ladybug. The results show that alfazema is highly effective, more so than citronella. A 1% concentration of alfazema oil is more effective in killing aphids than the same concentration of citronella. Alfazema oil has the further advantage that it is attractive to ladybugs and is less lethal to fennel flowers.
  Will Focht and Charles I. Abramson
  Problem Statement: Interdisciplinary environmental education and research at American colleges and universities have been criticized for ambiguous focus, insufficient integration and lack of rigor. Part of the reason for a clearly articulated conceptualization of the field is the failure to reach a consensus among those in the environmental profession and academic community on an overarching paradigm of environmental education and research. Approach: This essay argued for situating interdisciplinary environmental education and research on the principles of sustainability. Results: We believe that sustainable solutions to the complex problems facing us at the interface of society and nature cannot be found using unidisciplinary and multidisciplinary approaches. Instead, what is needed is an interdisciplinary synthesis across a wide range of natural sciences, social sciences, applied sciences and the humanities. The appropriate mix of these depends on the particular problem being addressed. Conclusion: By focusing on human quality of life, the health of systems that supply the resources needed for quality of life improvements and the regulation of capital flows between and among these systems, we can devised an educational and research agenda that more efficiently meets the needs of today’s generations and those that follow.
  Charles I. Abramson , Melanie C. Page , Mia Zolna , Waylon Howard , Italo S. Aquino and Shakuntala Nain
  The purpose of our study was to provide preliminary data on light levels used in university and elementary school classrooms in Campina Grande, Brazil with the aim of providing Brazilian politicians and educators with data to support continued educational initiatives in northeast Brazil. The data were gathered at the Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG) and compared with a sample of classrooms at Oklahoma State University (OSU) in Stillwater Oklahoma. The results indicated that many seats within UFCG classrooms met or exceeded minimum standards but significant numbers did not. Moreover, compared to classrooms at OSU, UFCG classrooms are not as highly illuminated and the Brazilian elementary classrooms examined did not meet minimum illumination standards.
  Charles I. Abramson , Waylon Howard , Mia Zolna , Shakuntla Nain , Italo S. Aquino , Herbert Rocha , Zeyna Moraes and Melanie M. Page
  The study of alcohol abuse is relatively new in Brazil. Government estimates suggest that 11.2% of the Brazilian population is alcohol dependent. Problems associated with alcohol dependence include domestic violence, increased risk of traffic accidents, poor self-esteem and weak academic performance. A factor known to correlate with alcohol abuse in 12-17 year olds is to have the money necessary to purchase alcoholic beverages. No data is available, however, on the price of alcoholic beverages. The objective of the present study was to provide data on price and to compare the price of alcoholic beverages to basic food items in the Brazilian diet. We also had interest in studying a population in the northeast region of Brazil. This region is the poorest in Brazil, has the highest percentage of alcohol dependency and is seldom the focus of research on dependency. We report that the prices of many alcoholic beverages are less than the price of basic food items. Prices of alcoholic beverages including beer, wine and spirits were compared to the prices of select food items as represented in the Food Pyramid. Food items were selected from the categories of Grain, Dairy, Fruit, Meat and Vegetable. Data was gathered from 32 supermarkets in 8 cities in the northeast state of Paraiba. The price of alcohol is generally less expensive than most basic food group items, especially brands of cachaça (a spirit distilled from sugar cane) and beer. Data on price should be considered in any alcohol dependency program in Brazil.
  Charles I. Abramson and Amauri B. Bartoszeck
  In this article we suggest various ways in which the undergraduate curriculum for psychology students can be improved in developing countries. Suggestions based on the author’s experience in the northeast of Brazil include forming psychology clubs, creating community outreach programs, establishing a human subject pool, skills training, developing research-based courses and seeking outside funding.
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