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Articles by Chao Zhang
Total Records ( 5 ) for Chao Zhang
  Wenting Han , Xinmei Zhou , Su Ki Ooi , Bingqin Zhu , Chao Zhang and Pute Wu
  A crop water requirement diagnosis and irrigation water requirement decision-making support system was developed which comprised of a data import module, a database module, a model library and diagnosis and decision-making modules. Depending on the information acquisition method, the system can adopt one of the following two modes: online real-time diagnosis and decision making between the monitoring and decision-making systems or offline diagnosis and decision making. Using software technology to jointly use the basic database and the diagnosis and decision-making model library produces more comprehensive decision-making support functions in the system. The decision-making requirements of different users are supported by setting different diagnostic and decision-making strategies. The diagnosis and decision-making support system was developed using Java language and it passed the case test. The results from this study provide methods and tools to improve our knowledge of agricultural irrigation and irrigation water use efficiency.
  Chao Zhang , Jiali Wang , Tianyang Liu and Anshan Shan
  This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation with different levels (0, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.2%) of Ligustrum lucidum Extract (LLE) on growth performance and meat quality in pigs. A total of 96 healthy crossbred (Duroc x Landrace x Yorkshire) pigs with an initial body weight of 20±2 kg were randomly assigned to four treatment groups in four replicates of 6 pigs each. The test ended after 7 weeks (101 days), when the average weight of the pigs was 90±2 kg. The results showed that LLE tended to increase the ADG and ADFI and decrease the F/G. The drip loss values in the three treatment groups were reduced by 17.46, 16.51 and 19.38% compared to the control and cooking loss values were reduced by 6.15, 5.01 and 7.16% (p>0.05). The shear force of the 0.2% LLE group was reduced by 15.42% compared with the control group (p<0.05), finishing while those of the 0.1 and 0.05% LLE groups were decreased by 9.16 and 7.77%, respectively (p>0.05). The groups receiving dietary supplementation with LLE exhibited 30.77, 30.77 and 32.39% lower MDA levels (p<0.05) and 4.43, 41.91 and 43.46% higher levels of intramuscular fat. Overall, 0.2% LLE had the most beneficial effects of all doses evaluated.
  Eric M. Rubenstein , Rhonda R. McCartney , Chao Zhang , Kevan M. Shokat , Margaret K. Shirra , Karen M. Arndt and Martin C. Schmidt
Phosphorylation of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Snf1 kinase activation loop is determined by the integration of two reaction rates: the rate of phosphorylation by upstream kinases and the rate of dephosphorylation by Glc7. The activities of the Snf1-activating kinases do not appear to be glucose-regulated, since immune complex kinase assays with each of the three Snf1-activating kinases show similar levels of activity when prepared from cells grown in either high or low glucose. In contrast, the dephosphorylation of the Snf1 activation loop was strongly regulated by glucose. When de novo phosphorylation of Snf1 was inhibited, phosphorylation of the Snf1 activation loop was found to be stable in low glucose but rapidly lost upon the addition of glucose. A greater than 10-fold difference in the rates of Snf1 activation loop dephosphorylation was detected. However, the activity of the Glc7-Reg1 phosphatase may not itself be directly regulated by glucose, since the Glc7-Reg1 enzyme was active in low glucose toward another substrate, the transcription factor Mig1. Glucose-mediated regulation of Snf1 activation loop dephosphorylation is controlled by changes in the ability of the Snf1 activation loop to act as a substrate for Glc7.
  Susan E. Levin , Chao Zhang , Theresa A. Kadlecek , Kevan M. Shokat and Arthur Weiss
  ZAP-70 is a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine kinase that is required for T cell antigen receptor (TCR) signaling. Both mice and humans deficient in ZAP-70 fail to develop functional T cells, thus demonstrating its necessity for T cell development and function. There is currently no highly specific, cell-permeable, small molecule inhibitor for ZAP-70; therefore, we generated a mutant ZAP-70 allele that retains kinase activity but is sensitive to inhibition by a mutant-specific inhibitor. We validated the chemical genetic inhibitor system in Jurkat T cell lines, where the inhibitor blocked ZAP-70-dependent TCR signaling in cells expressing the analog-sensitive allele. Interestingly, the inhibitor also ablated CD28 superagonist signaling, thereby demonstrating the utility of this system in dissecting the requirement for ZAP-70 in alternative mechanisms of T cell activation. Thus, we have developed the first specific chemical means of inhibiting ZAP-70 in cells, which serves as a valuable tool for studying the function of ZAP-70 in T cells.
  Margaret K. Shirra , Rhonda R. McCartney , Chao Zhang , Kevan M. Shokat , Martin C. Schmidt and Karen M. Arndt
  The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Snf1 kinase plays a critical role in recalibrating cellular metabolism in response to glucose depletion. Hundreds of genes show changes in expression levels when the SNF1 gene is deleted. However, cells can adapt to the absence of a specific gene when grown in long term culture. Here we apply a chemical genetic method to rapidly and selectively inactivate a modified Snf1 kinase using a pyrazolopyrimidine inhibitor. By allowing cells to adjust to a change in carbon source prior to inhibition of the Snf1 kinase activity, we identified a set of genes whose expression increased when Snf1 was inhibited. Prominent in this set are genes that are activated by Gcn4, a transcriptional activator of amino acid biosynthetic genes. Deletion of Snf1 increased Gcn4 protein levels without affecting its mRNA levels. The increased Gcn4 protein levels required the Gcn2 kinase and Gcn20, regulators of GCN4 translation. These data indicate that Snf1 functions upstream of Gcn20 to regulate control of GCN4 translation in S. cerevisiae.
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