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Articles by Chao Chen
Total Records ( 2 ) for Chao Chen
  Kenny S. Crump , Chao Chen , John F. Fox , Cynthia Van Landingham and Ravi Subramaniam
  Conolly et al. (2003, 2004) developed biologically motivated models of formaldehyde carcinogenicity in F344 rats and humans based on a two-stage clonal expansion model of cancer. Based on the human model, Conolly et al. (2004) claimed that cancer risks associated with inhaled formaldehyde are deminimis at relevant human exposure levels. However, they did not conduct a sensitivity analysis to evaluate the robustness of this conclusion. Here, we present a limited sensitivity analysis of the formaldehyde human model. We show that when the control animals from the National Toxicology Program (NTP) studies are replaced with control animals only from NTP inhalation studies, estimates of human risk are increased by 50-fold. When only concurrent control rats are used, the model does not provide any upper bound (UB) to human risk. No data went into the model on the effect of formaldehyde on the division rates and death rates of initiated cells. We show that slight numerical perturbations to the Conolly et al. assumptions regarding these rates can be made that are equally consistent with the underlying data used to construct the model, but produce estimates of human risk ranging anywhere from negative up to 10 000 times higher than those deemed by Conolly et al. to be ‘conservative’. Thus, we conclude that estimates of human risk by Conolly et al. (2004) are extremely sensitive to modeling assumptions. This calls into question the basis for the Conolly et al. claim of de minimis human risk and suggests caution in using the model to derive human exposure standards for formaldehyde.
  Yuzhen Liu , Xia Zhang , Chao Chen , Guobin Zhang , Pengshou Xu , Dapeng Chen and Lijun Dong
  SiCN thin films were prepared by high-dosage (2 x 1017 cm- 2) C+ ion implantation into α-SiNx:H films. The prepared films were then processed by thermal annealing for 2 h at 800 °C, 1000 °C and 1200 °C respectively. The composition and bond structure of SiCN were analyzed by X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction, and photoluminescence. Ternary structure with N bridging C and Si of the film annealed at 800 °C was found. The luminescent properties of SiCN have also been studied by synchrotron radiation at 20 K. Four emission bands were observed, corresponding to 2.95, 2.58, 2.29 and 2.12 eV at 20 K, respectively. In this paper, we report the experimental results and try to explain them.
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