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Articles by Chanson J. Brumme
Total Records ( 2 ) for Chanson J. Brumme
  Zabrina L. Brumme , Chanson J. Brumme , Jonathan Carlson , Hendrik Streeck , Mina John , Quentin Eichbaum , Brian L. Block , Brett Baker , Carl Kadie , Martin Markowitz , Heiko Jessen , Anthony D. Kelleher , Eric Rosenberg , John Kaldor , Yuko Yuki , Mary Carrington , Todd M. Allen , Simon Mallal , Marcus Altfeld , David Heckerman and Bruce D. Walker
  During acute human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, early host cellular immune responses drive viral evolution. The rates and extent of these mutations, however, remain incompletely characterized. In a cohort of 98 individuals newly infected with HIV-1 subtype B, we longitudinally characterized the rates and extent of HLA-mediated escape and reversion in Gag, Pol, and Nef using a rational definition of HLA-attributable mutation based on the analysis of a large independent subtype B data set. We demonstrate rapid and dramatic HIV evolution in response to immune pressures that in general reflect established cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response hierarchies in early infection. On a population level, HLA-driven evolution was observed in ~80% of published CTL epitopes. Five of the 10 most rapidly evolving epitopes were restricted by protective HLA alleles (HLA-B*13/B*51/B*57/B*5801; P = 0.01), supporting the importance of a strong early CTL response in HIV control. Consistent with known fitness costs of escape, B*57-associated mutations in Gag were among the most rapidly reverting positions upon transmission to non-B*57-expressing individuals, whereas many other HLA-associated polymorphisms displayed slow or negligible reversion. Overall, an estimated minimum of 30% of observed substitutions in Gag/Pol and 60% in Nef were attributable to HLA-associated escape and reversion events. Results underscore the dominant role of immune pressures in driving early within-host HIV evolution. Dramatic differences in escape and reversion rates across codons, genes, and HLA restrictions are observed, highlighting the complexity of viral adaptation to the host immune response.
  Toshiyuki Miura , Mark A. Brockman , Chanson J. Brumme , Zabrina L. Brumme , Jonathan M. Carlson , Florencia Pereyra , Alicja Trocha , Marylyn M. Addo , Brian L. Block , Alissa C. Rothchild , Brett M. Baker , Theresa Flynn , Arne Schneidewind , Bin Li , Yaoyu E. Wang , David Heckerman , Todd M. Allen and Bruce D. Walker
  Despite reports of viral genetic defects in persons who control human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in the absence of antiviral therapy, the extent to which such defects contribute to the long-term containment of viremia is not known. Most previous studies examining for such defects have involved small numbers of subjects, primarily focused on subjects expressing HLA-B57, or have examined single viral genes, and they have focused on cellular proviral DNA rather than plasma viral RNA sequences. Here, we attempted viral sequencing from 95 HIV-1 elite controllers (EC) who maintained plasma viral loads of <50 RNA copies/ml in the absence of therapy, the majority of whom did not express HLA-B57. HIV-1 gene fragments were obtained from 94% (89/95) of the EC, and plasma viral sequences were obtained from 78% (61/78), the latter indicating the presence of replicating virus in the majority of EC. Of 63 persons for whom nef was sequenced, only three cases of nef deletions were identified, and gross genetic defects were rarely observed in other HIV-1 coding genes. In a codon-by-codon comparison between EC and persons with progressive infection, correcting for HLA bias and coevolving secondary mutations, a significant difference was observed at only three codons in Gag, all three of which represented the historic population consensus amino acid at the time of infection. These results indicate that the spontaneous control of HIV replication is not attributable to shared viral genetic defects or shared viral polymorphisms.
 
 
 
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