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Articles by Chamhuri Siwar
Total Records ( 18 ) for Chamhuri Siwar
  Md. Anowar Hossain Bhuiyan , Chamhuri Siwar , Shaharuddin Mohamad Ismail and Rabiul Islam
  Problem statement: This study provided a brief discussion of home stay for ecotourism development in ECER. Home stay is a potential economic activity in tourism sector. The East Coast Economic Region (ECER) has numerous ecotourism resources including hills, mountains, lakes, waterways, state and national parks, recreational forest parks and forest reserves. Home stay should emphasize on the cultural practices as well as to create a genuine interest and commitment among the local people in the region. This study focused the potentialities of home stay for ecotourism development in ECER. The study also discussed the short comings and necessary actions for developing home stay activities in this region. Approach: The data for analysis was perceived from the secondary sources. The significant manipulations for acquired data were home stay accommodation on ECER. Results: There are some potential factors were remaining in the ECER for establishing home stays-ecotourism resources and biodiversity, infrastructure development, integrated approach, present the cultural performance, limited environmental and social impact, commercial interest and investment and opportunities for local entrepreneurs. Weaknesses also remain in ECER for home stays development, these are low standard of accommodation, unacceptable bathroom and toilet facilities, identity for each Home stay, lack of hospitality experience, marketing problem and lack of campaign. There are some challenges such as brand image issues, meeting international standards, training facilities, marketing and promotion, poverty alleviation must be consider for home stay development in ECER. Conclusion: The study revealed that home stays operation could be create alternative accommodation opportunities in ECER. With proper planning and implementation, operational regulation and management, appropriate development and financial allocation in home stay operation would be ensuring sustainable ecotourism development in ECER.
  Md. Wahid Murad , Nik Hashim Nik Mustapha and Chamhuri Siwar
  The new scientific knowledge coupled with concerns for the environmental, economic and social aspects of agriculture brought Malaysian agriculture into a state of transition. The need for reviewing Malaysian agricultural policies has arisen due to that fact that current agricultural practices in the country are found to be related to environmental, economic and social problems. This study is an effort to review the current Malaysian agricultural policies with regards to sustainability. The Third National Agricultural Policy (3NAP), which is the latest one and relevant secondary materials have primarily been reviewed to substantiate our arguments in this paper. The study, however, argues that the latest Malaysian agricultural policies are compatible with the standards of sustainable agriculture, but the current agricultural practices in the country differ, to some extent, from sustainability principles. The study ends up with some concluding remarks.
  Al-Amin , Chamhuri Siwar and Abdul Hamid
  Problem Statement: Lacking of proper environmental models environmental pollution is now a solemn problem in many developing countries particularly in Malaysia. Some empirical studies of worldwide reveal that imposition of a carbon tax significantly decreases carbon emissions and does not dramatically reduce economic growth. To our knowledge there has not been any research done to simulate the economic impact of emission control policies in Malaysia. Approach: Therefore this study developed an environmental computable general equilibrium model for Malaysia and investigated carbon tax policy responses in the economy applying exogenously different degrees of carbon tax into the model. Three simulations were carried out using a Malaysian social accounting matrix. Results: The carbon tax policy illustrated that a 1.21% reduction of carbon emission reduced the nominal GDP by 0.82% and exports by 2.08%; 2.34% reduction of carbon emission reduced the nominal GDP by 1.90% and exports by 3.97% and 3.40% reduction of carbon emission reduced the nominal GDP by 3.17% and exports by 5.71%. Conclusion/Recommendations: Imposition of successively higher carbon tax results in increased government revenue from baseline by 26.67, 53.07 and 79.28% respectively. However, fixed capital investment increased in scenario 1a by 0.43% and decreased in scenarios 1b and 1c by 0.26 and 1.79% respectively from the baseline. According to our policy findings policy makers should consider 1st (scenario 1a) carbon tax policy. This policy results in achieving reasonably good environmental impacts without losing the investment, fixed capital investment, investment share of nominal GDP and government revenue.
  Rabiul Islam , Chamhuri Siwar and Shaharuddin Mohamad Ismail
  Problem statement: This study investigated the issues of trade and environment on sustainable development. It has reviewed the existing literatures on trade and environment and conceptualized the economic, environmental and social effects of sustainable development. The review has six parts. Approach: Firstly, we discussed the market access, barriers to trade and impediments. Secondly, we state the trade liberalization, timber trade and environment. Results: Thirdly, we analyzed the agreements on tropical timber. Fourthly, we explained illegal logging, deforestation and pollution on trade and environment. Fifthly, we study sustainable forest management. Conclusion: Finally, we related the sustainable development on tropical timber trade. The purpose of this study was to highlight and clarify the impacts of trade and environment on sustainable development.
  Rabiul Islam , Shaharuddin Mohamad Ismail and Chamhuri Siwar
  Problem statement: This study investigated the issues of trade barriers to timber trade in Malaysia. In recent years, there has been decreasing the trade barriers to timber trade in Malaysia. Approach: Trade barriers to timber trade are an important role in the forest economics sector and take a major player in Malaysia’s economic growth. There is a growing concern that trade barriers to timber trade are creating both direct and indirect opportunities to environmental trade issues. Results: We analyzed the role of trade barriers to timber trade and the barriers of timber trade policy in Malaysia. Conclusion: We explained tariff removals of timber trade in Malaysia. The purpose of this study is to highlight and clarify the impacts on trade barriers to timber trade in Malaysia.
  Rabiul Islam , Chamhuri Siwar , Shaharuddin Mohamad Ismail and Nurul Hidayah Chamhuri
  Problem statement: This study investigated the timber certification of sustainable forest management and the criteria and indicators for sustainable forest management. Approach: Sustainable forest management is an important role in the forestry sector and takes a major player in Malaysia’s sustainable development. It is a management regime that integrates and balances social, economic, ecological, cultural and spiritual needs to present and future generations. Results: We analyzed the pillars of sustainable forest management, criteria, indicators, activities and standards of performance for sustainable forest management in Malaysia. Conclusion: The aim of this study was to highlight and clarify the impacts of trade and environment on sustainable forest management in Malaysia.
  Abdullahi Ahmed Chinade , Chamhuri Siwar , Shaharuddin Mohamed Ismail and Anizan Isahak
  Carbon sequestration in forest soils is considered important for mitigation of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and for improving forest health and land productivity. The measurement of soil carbon stock is also necessary for carbon inventory and calibration of carbon simulation models. Mitigation of carbon dioxide (CO2) (the main Green-House Gas (GHG)) in the atmosphere can be accomplished by either reducing its emission or by sequestering it in biomass and in soil. Malaysia’s large forested area, estimated at 17.7 M ha, offers an opportunity for carbon sequestration in soil. The forest ecosystem of Peninsular Malaysia alone, is reported to contain 23.48 Million tonnes of Carbon (or 86.17M to CO2 equivalent) and a carbon sequestration potential of 4 tonnes of carbon ha-1 year-1. However, this estimate excludes soil carbon stock despite the fact that the soil carbon component accounts for 36-46% of the total carbon in the forest ecosystem. This study reviews the opportunities and challenges facing carbon sequestration in Malaysian forest soils.
  Md. Anowar Hossain Bhuiyan , Md. Azizul Bari , Chamhuri Siwar , Shaharuddin Mohamad Ismail and Rabiul Islam
  Tourism sector is one of the main sources of carbon emission. The transportation used in tourism is the major contributor when considering all the factors in the tourism industry for energy consumption and carbon emission. Malaysia emphasizes ecotourism for tourism development. There are 42 recreational forest areas situated in East Coast Economic Region (ECER) of Malaysia. The aim of this study was to measure the carbon emissions from Sekayu recreational forest in Terengganu by tourists. The study highlights the considerable issues and policies of carbon emissions in the forest by ecotourism activities. The study considers only the carbon emissions from transportation sector. Local tourists’ vehicles have been used to measure carbon emissions. The study shows that carbon emissions from buses and motorcycles are lower than those of small car (compact-size) and big car (family size). The study suggests that some initiatives can be taken for low carbon emissions in this ecotourism destination. Those are low-carbon technologies, sustainable tourism, low-carbon tourism consumption, paid carbon taxes, government and tour operator initiatives, institutional facilities development and tourism friendly traffic system. The ecotourism destinations, government, tour-operators and tourists are trying to reduce carbon emissions by improving and changing their transportations usage and other service systems. Finally, Malaysian government should develop linkage with international organizations for developing low-carbon ecotourism in ECER.
  Chamhuri Siwar , Ferdoushi Ahmed , Nor Diana Mohd Idris , Shaharudin Idrus , Amelia Hazreena Abdul Ghani and Siti Zalikha Zahari
  In Malaysia, poverty reduction has become a major concern in the development policies during the last few decades. However, the rate of poverty is still high in several states of the country. This study aims to estimate the poverty rate at smaller areas such as districts in the state of Pahang, Malaysia through poverty mapping. The study also examines the association of poverty status of the households with their socio-demographic characteristics in the state. The data was obtained from the Implementation and Coordination Unit (ICU), Malaysia which collected the information through household survey in the 11 districts in Pahang from 2008-2011. Summary descriptive statistics were applied to analyze socio-demographic characteristics of the surveyed households. ArcGIS 10 was used for poverty mapping to show spatial distribution of poverty. The findings show that majority of the districts in the state experienced high rate of poverty (on average, 18.50%). However, the number of hard-core poor families were found to be substantially low in each of the district. Incidences of poverty in rural areas are significantly higher than that of urban areas of the state. The greatest portions (90.17%) of poor households are the Malays. It was also found that the households whose heads are economically inactive mainly suffer from hard-core poverty in both rural and urban areas of the state. The findings of this study provide an insight about poverty statistics at smaller area and socio-demographic distribution of the poor households that might be helpful for the government in formulating the policies to reduce poverty rate at district, state as well as national level.
  Chamhuri Siwar , Ferdoushi Ahmed , Ahmad Bashawir and Md. Shahin Mia
  In recent years, urban poverty in Malaysia has been considered as an increasingly visible phenomenon due to impacts of urbanization. This study aims to assess the trends in urban poverty and urbanization in Malaysia during 1970-2012. The study also examines consequences of rapid urbanization and urban vulnerable group in the country. The study used empirical data on urbanization, household income, poverty, population at rural and urban level. The data were obtained from Economic Planning Unit (EPU), Malaysia and Department of Statistics, Malaysia. The findings reveal that there was a downward trend in urban poverty incidences. Poverty rate in urban areas decreased from 25.5% in 1970 to 1% in 2012. However, average monthly income of urban households is much higher (almost twice) than that of rural families which indicates a high income inequality in urban and rural level. The country experienced cumulative growth of urbanization during the last few decades. Level of urbanization was 34.2% in 1980 and reached to 71% in 2010. The country also observed a boom in urban population that swelled from 27% of total population in 1970 to 71% in 2010. Significant increase of urban population in a short span of time creates various problems including high cost of living, crime, social problem, environmental deterioration, unemployment and poverty. Therefore, to tackle the problems, it is urgently required to identify the location of poor in city, differences between poor areas, effectiveness of specific programs as well as design and best practice of urban poverty reduction programs and policies.
  Ferdoushi Ahmed and Chamhuri Siwar
  Nutritional status of the people of a country is mainly influenced by the food they intake regularly. Taking improper amount of food results in mal-nutrition (i.e., overweight, obese or under nutrition) which ultimately affects physical well-being of the people. Nutritional status of people is also closely linked with dietary fat intake. This paper focuses on food intake and nutritional status among adults in Malaysia. The paper reviews currently available information on dietary food intake and nutritional status of Malaysian adults. Literatures were identified for review through a comprehensive search by using electronic and non-electronic databases. Based on the review of literature, it was found that nutritional status of Malaysian adults is significantly correlated with their habit of food intake. Studies revealed that the persons who over estimate their dietary fat intake has significantly higher adjusted mean Body Mass Index (BMI) (25.79±0.76) than accurate estimators (24.09±0.42) or under-estimators (24.06±0.49). Moreover, the group of over-estimators has the highest proportion of overweight and obese (60%) compared to under-estimators (40.8) and accurate estimators (31.6%). The adjusted mean Waist Circumference (WC) is also comparatively higher among the persons who over estimate their dietary fat intake. It was reported that overweight and obesity are highly endemic in Malaysia. Overweight and obesity result in diabetes, hypertension and coronary heart diseases which cause premature deaths. Therefore, future research is urgently needed at both household and national level for further understanding the correlation between dietary food intake and nutritional status and consequently physical well-being of the people in the country.
  Chamhuri Siwar and Ferdoushi Ahmed
  Water is an essential element in maintaining life and needed for all social and economic endeavours. However, increase in world population and rapid socio-economic development imposes high pressure on water resources around the world. Therefore, water security is a global concern in recent times. This study aims to focus on various concepts and dimensions of water security. The study also highlights the elements of water security. The paper reviews currently available information on concepts, dimensions and elements of water security. Literatures were identified for review through a comprehensive search by using electronic and non-electronic databases. Literatures demonstrate that water security has multiple definitions depending on the definition of human and/or environmental need. Studies highlighted five key dimensions of water security, namely, household water security, economic water security, urban water security, environmental water security and resilience to water- related disasters. Studies also pointed out three key elements of water security viz. water access, water safety and water affordability. Literatures suggest that investing in water and sanitation and wastewater management will lead to increased levels of human health, reduced levels of poverty and indigence and increased opportunities for education and employment, resulting in overall national economic development. Therefore, mutual cooperation among various countries is urgently needed to achieve water security at national, regional as well as global level.
  Ferdoushi Ahmed , Chamhuri Siwar and Nor Aini Hj. Idris
  Microcredit programmes provide small loans to the very poor in order to undertake self employment and other financial and business activities giving them the ability to care for themselves and their families and thus, achieve a level of independence. Microcredit is also referred to as microfinance and micro lending which has demonstrated to be an effective tool in the ongoing struggle against poverty and enables those without access to lending institutions to borrow and start small business. The concept of AIM is to create out of the hardcore poor households, highly motivated individuals who are committed to earn an honest living and eventually move out of the poverty level. For that reason, Amanah Ikhtiar Malaysia plays a major role in microcredit programmes of Malaysia. This study highlights on the AIM loan programme, financing scheme, loan disburse and achievement indicators of the Amanah Ikhtiar Malaysia (AIM) and also discusses the contribution of the AIM microcredit programme to poverty alleviation in Malaysia. The experience of the AIM shows that microcredit is the most important tool in efforts to reduce poverty.
  John Babington Chibunna , Chamhuri Siwar , Ahmad Fariz Mohamed and Rawshan Ara Begum
  A total of 500 questionnaires were sent to 10 selected faculties and institutes to 300 staffs and 200 students within the university community. The survey response indicates relatively low level of WEEE recycling participation among the surveyed staffs and students at 35 and 19%, respectively. Although, the recycling practice is low, the study indicates that 85% of the staffs and 80% of students surveyed within the university community found it necessary for WEEE to be properly collected and recycled. Majority of them show good repair attitude at 55% for staffs and 53% for students but with poor disposal practices. However, the study reveals the need for increasing awareness of WEEE recycling, not only in the university but also at municipal levels. The study recommends that various offices, university hostels, departments, faculties, institutes and research centers should establish better WEEE recycling and disposal practices to reduce the impact on the ecosystem.
  Rashidah Zainal Alam , Mohammed Ebrahim Hussien , Chamhuri Siwar and Norasikin Ahmad Ludin
  As a result of rapid economic growth of Malaysia there is a remarkable growth in energy demand. The energy sources for undertaking socio-economic activities highly rely on fossil fuel energy. On the other hand, the stock of conventional energy resources is limited and it is accounted as major source of CO2 emissions. The issue of energy resource scarcity and CO2 emissions lead to look for the alternative sources of energy. Furthermore, the limited financial access of rural population and the difficulty of electricity distribution due to topographic difficulties in some areas like in Sabah and Sarawak states of Malaysia lead to the need for local alternative sources of energy. To this end renewable energy sources introduced as a plausible energy sources to curb the complex interdependent issues of resource and environment. Moreover, renewable energy source is very important to minimize regional disparity of rural-urban development. The study reviews the plausibility of renewable energy sources as key player for the regional development in general and improvement of rural livelihood in particular.
  Abul Bashar Bhuiyan , Chamhuri Siwar , Rabiul Islam and Khairul Naim Adhan
  Green economy is the emerging concept in the way of sustainable livelihood and poverty alleviation through reducing of environmental risks and ecological scarcities, carbon emissions and pollution as well as enhance energy and resource efficiency and prevent the loss of biodiversity, ecosystem services in Malaysia. The improvement of low standard income households in a certain and remarkable stages through restructuring of society for ensure sustainable livelihood and socio-economic well-being are very important issues in Malaysia to become a developed country by 2020. This study aims to investigate impact of greening initiatives on socio-economic well-being and sustainable livelihood of the low income households in Malaysia from the existing review of studies. In general, this assessment review study has revealed that the green economy has a significant role on the national economy towards promoting green technology in economic and social developments through non-renewable fuels, safeguards and minimises the environmental degradation due to carbon emissions, as well as green products for Income Generating Activities (IGAs) of the low level income group in Malaysia. Finally this study provided necessary policy recommendations based on survey output for policy implications where it can help for development of effective strategies of green corporations for poverty alleviation, socio-economic well-being and sustainable livelihood through Income Generating Activities (IGAs) of lower income group in Malaysia.
  Innocent A. Jereme , Basri Abdul Talib , Chamhuri Siwar and Rawshan Ara Begum
  The problem of food waste among households in Malaysia is becoming a great concern to the local authorities as enormous amount is spent in disposing food waste. With increased in households income, as a result of good economy in the last two decades and changes in consumption pattern, food waste has grown to alarming figures. Therefore, this study examines food consumption and disposal behaviour among households in Klang Valley, Malaysia. Households were randomly selected from Kajang. Bangi and Serdang with the objective to investigate household food consumption and disposal behaviour so as to achieve sustainable food consumption and food waste management in these areas. Also, what factors influences their consumption and disposal behaviour. Factor Analysis (FA) was used for the empirical analysis. Findings from the result have revealed that over all respondent’s attitudes shows that they do not like to waste their food while some of them prefer to eat freshly cook food both at home and restaurants rather than leftover food. However on the other hand, food waste composting and disposal behaviour is influenced by neighborhood attitude towards disposal.
  Chamhuri Siwar , Norzalina Zainudin , Er Ah Choy and Norshamliza Chamhuri
  The purpose of this study is to examine the acceptance of energy efficient products business in Malaysia as well as its impacts on the individual, society, environment and economy, providing a good example of setting up an effective national policies and paradigm. A total 392 usable questionnaires were analyzed by using Structural Equation Model with AMOS. By examining the model proposed, the study validated the important of consumers’ attitude in mediating the linkage between consumers’ perception on product advantages, subjective norm, responsibility and buying decision. However, the findings could not garner any support for mediating effect of attitude in the relationship between perceived behavior control negative and buying decision.
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