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Articles by Cesar Kapseu
Total Records ( 5 ) for Cesar Kapseu
  Divine Nde Bup , Charles Fon Abi , Dzudie Tenin , Cesar Kapseu , Clerge Tchiegang and Zephirin Mouloungui
  An indirect solar dryer was tested for drying sheanut kernels. The influence of tray distance from heat source, airspeed and particle size on drying kinetics was investigated. Optimum drying air parameters obtained in the dryer were airspeeds of 1 and 1.4 m sec-1 and a temperature of 40-45°C. Sheanut kernel slices dried entirely in the falling rate period. Drying rate decreased with increase in particle size. The effect of particle size on the drying rate suggested that the drying process was controlled by internal mass transfer. Drying kinetics was modeled with characteristic drying curve and diffusive models. Effective moisture diffusivities of sheanut kernel slices calculated without shrinkage were greater than those calculated with the incorporation of shrinkage by a value of about 50%. Acid and peroxide values indicated that butter from the dryer could be classified either as category 1 or 2 irrespective of the drying conditions to which the kernels were subjected.
  Cesar Kapseu , Bernadette Piffaut , Michel Parmentier and Cesar Kapseu
  Studies were conducted on the textural and biochemical changes occurring in Canarium schweinfurthii Eng fruits, after harvest, in an attempt to study the physical and chemical changes associated with the raw, stored and heat treated samples. The fruits were harvested and stored for 7 days (Stored Hardened fruits), heat treated at 45 C for 40 min (Heat Softened fruits) and heat treated at 70 C for 40 min (Heat Hardened fruit). The samples were evaluated for their textural properties, moisture, reducing sugars, total soluble sugars, ash, protein, starch, cellulose, lignin and uronic acids. The hardness of the fruits increased in with storage (15.83 to 20.71 N respectively for raw fruits and stored hardened fruits), while the shear force vary from 0.77 to 5.41 N (respectively for heat softened fruits and heat hardened fruits), making the consumption of heat hardened fruits impossible. Chemical analysis showed no significant differences (P < 0.05) between the values obtained for ash, protein, minerals (Na, K, Mg). The moisture of the pulp decreased from 49.32 to 39.90% in a period of 7 days of storage, suggesting that there was dehydration after harvest. Uronic acid, cellulose and lignin increased during storage. Heat hardened pulp showed different changes in the chemical indices than those stored at 22 C for 7 days, suggesting another mechanism of hardening.
  Cesar Kapseu , Gilles Bernard Nkouam , Michel Dirand , Danielle Barth , Laurent Perrin and Clerge Tchiegang
  The water vapour adsorption and desorption isotherms in sheanuts kernels were determined at 25, 35 45 and 55įC. The static micro-gravimetric method using a Sartorius 4201 electromagnetic suspension microbalance was employed in the study. The sorption process was modelled by the BET, Oswin, Smith and the GAB equations while the Clausius-Clapeyron equation was used to calculate the net isosteric heats of sorption. The results showed a hysteresis effect between adsorption and desorption curves. The moisture content of the monolayer significantly depended on temperature and varied from 4.16 to 1.47% in adsorption and from 4.41 to 2.29% for desorption (GABís equation). The BET equation gave a lower range of 2.37 to 1.25% for adsorption and 3.41 to 1.59% for desorption. The sorption isotherms were best described by the GAB and Oswin models. The net isosteric heats of desorption (28.38 kJ moL-1) were greater than those of adsorption (21.98 kJ moL-1).
  Bertille Carine Tchankou Leudeu , Clerge Tchiegang , Michel Dzondo Gadet , Francoise Barbe , Benedicte Nicolas , Selestin Sokeng , Paul Moundipa Fewou , Cesar Kapseu , Michel Parmentier and Jean-Louis Gueant
  The aim of this study was to compare the effects of two vegetable oils on the growth, blood lipids, lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress in rats. One month old male rats Sprague Dawley were fed during 60 days with a diet containing Canarium schweinfurthii oil (CSO group), or Dacryodes edulis oil (DEO group), or palm oil (PO group). Palm oil was used as control. On 6 rats before the experimentation (baseline group) and on rats fed different diets, serum were used for total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, glycerol, creatinine, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, bilirubine determinations. Plasma were used for fatty acids, selenium and malondialdehyde determination. Glutathione peroxydase and superoxyde dismutase were measured in red blood cells. The daily food intake was different from one group to another.During the first month of the experiment, CSO diet was the most consummed. The gain in body weight was highest for the PO group. This group presents a high value of triglycerides, glycerol and asparatate aminotransferase compare to CSO and DEO groups. HDL-cholesterol, creatinine, alaninine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubine malondialdehyde and selenium level was not significantly different (p<0.05) for rats fed PO, CSO and DEO diets. Oils experimented contribute to the decrease the LDL-cholesterol level for over 50% in comparison of the baseline group. The atherogenicity index is highest for baseline group than PO, CSO and DEO groups. Oils experimented influenced glycerol, alanine aminotransferase level. We can conclude that oils experimented decrease the risk factor of cardiovascular disease to 43.91% for CSO and DEOgroups and to 39.30% for PO group.
  Gilles Bernard Nkouam , Cesar Kapseu , Danielle Barth , Michel Dirand and Jean Bosco Tchatchueng
  Oil extraction using CO2 from sheanut kernel (Vitellaria paradoxa Gaertn.) and Canarium pulp (Canarium Schweinfurthii Engl.)has been studied in comparison with hexane extraction. Samples that were stored at 18 C and -33 C, were analyzed after 1 month, 1 year and 2 years. Results showed that the extraction yields varied (dry basis) from 17.43-39.57% for shea butter and from 16.10-40.45% for Canarium oil. Lipids extracted with CO2 gave highest acid values, but lowest iodine values what irrespective of the storage temperature. Shea butter analysis by gaseous phase chromatography indicated a composition in stearic and oleic acids that did not vary significantly. Butter extracted with supercritical CO2 from sheanut kernel stored at 18 C were rich in polyunsaturated fatty acid. These results suggest that greater investigations on supercritical CO2 extraction of these fatty materials should be encouraged because of its selectivity.
 
 
 
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