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Articles by Cedric Manlhiot
Total Records ( 3 ) for Cedric Manlhiot
  Bahaaldin Alsoufi , Cedric Manlhiot , Brian W. McCrindle , Charles C. Canver , Ahmed Sallehuddin , Saud Al-Oufi , Mansour Joufan and Zohair Al-Halees
  Objective: The ideal valve substitute in children does not exist. Biologic and bioprosthetic valves do not require anticoagulation, however their use is complicated by accelerated degeneration and requirement for reoperation. We examine results following mitral (MVR) or aortic (AVR) replacement with biologic and bioprosthetic valves at our institution. Methods: Medical records of children who underwent AVR or MVR from 1986 to 2006 were reviewed. Median follow-up duration was 10.5 years. Competing-risks methodology determined time-related prevalence and associated factors for three mutually exclusive end states: death, valve reoperation, and survival without subsequent reoperation. Results: One hundred and ten children (age 15.6 ± 2.6 years, 80% females) underwent 123 valve replacements with biologic and bioprosthetic substitutes including 87 MVR and 36 AVR (13 had both). Underlying pathology was mainly rheumatic fever (91%). Thirty-nine patients (35%) had undergone a previous cardiac surgery. Most common mitral substitute was Hancock (73%) and homograft (8%); most common aortic substitute was homograft (41%) and Carpentier–Edwards (39%). Competing-risks analysis showed that 15 years after valve replacement, 16% of patients had died without subsequent reoperation, 66% underwent valve reoperations, and only 18% remained alive without further reoperation. Factors associated with increased reoperation risk included younger age at surgery (p = 0.005), AVR (p = 0.005), male gender (p = 0.02) and homograft use (p = 0.007) especially in the mitral position (p = 0.002). Fifteen-year freedom from endocarditis was 97% while freedom from bleeding and thrombo-embolic complications was 100%. Majority of patients (95%) were in NYHA functional classes I/II at last follow-up. Conclusion: While valve reoperation is inevitable following AVR and MVR with biologic and bioprosthetic substitutes; favorable results such as low valve-related morbidity rate, good long-term survival and functional status encourage their consideration as valid replacement alternatives in selected children especially females. Valve durability is higher in the mitral position and longevity of bioprosthetic valves is greater than that of homografts especially in the mitral position.
  Brian W. McCrindle and Cedric Manlhiot
  Elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level in childhood is an increasing problem, mainly due to a rising prevalence secondary to the childhood obesity epidemic and better recognition and screening. Vascular changes and impaired endothelial function associated with elevated LDL-C are apparent even in early childhood. Secondary adiposity-related cases are at higher risk due to the clustering of risk factors besides overweight, such as the atherogenic lipid triad, change in the atherogenic properties of the LDL-C particle itself, and the presence of insulin resistance. Prevention should focus on maintaining a healthy lifestyle, including a restricted fat and cholesterol diet, encouraging physical activity, and decreasing sedentary pursuits to maintain an appropriate weight in children. For children and adolescents found to have elevated LDL-C, management should focus on the pursuit of a healthy lifestyle mirroring that for prevention for at least 6 months. Additional dietary therapy, such as plant stanol and sterol esters, have also been shown to modestly reduce LDL-C levels. If the adoption of a healthy lifestyle is not sufficient to reduce LDL-C, lipid-lowering drugs should be considered in selected patients. Current drugs of choice are statins and potentially ezetimibe. Long-term treatment with statins has been shown to markedly reduce carotid intima-media thickness in children and adolescents, particularly when started early. Current evidence supports early and efficient treatment for affected children.
  Nita Chahal , Helen Wong , Cedric Manlhiot and Brian W. McCrindle
 

Background

Although therapeutic lifestyle changes are first-line measures in treating pediatric dyslipidemia, current didactic approaches for healthy lifestyle education are weakened by low adherence and poor sustainability. A collaborative education program including a clinician-led group education class with motivational counseling complemented by the addition of peer role models was implemented.

Objective

We sought to assess the effectiveness of motivational interviewing in collaboration with peers sharing their experience and its impact on serologic and lifestyle measures vs the conventional, didactic group education approach.

Method

Changes in lipid profiles, anthropometric measurements, nutritional scores, physical activity levels, and daily screen time after 6 months were compared both within groups and between the collaborative and the didactic approach.

Results

We reviewed 75 children ages 11.1 ± 3.5 years (n = 38 didactic/n = 37 collaborative). There were no group differences at baseline. Total cholesterol (5.79 ± 1.65 mmol/L vs 5.52 ± 1.39 mmol/L, P = .02) significantly decreased between the initial visit and the 6-month follow-up assessment with both approaches. Nutrition compliance scores significantly improved with both approaches (median: 5.3/10 vs 6.6/10, P = .004), with a marginally greater improvement for the collaborative (+1.7/10) vs the didactic approach (+1.0/10, P = .12). The collaborative approach was associated with greater reductions in weight percentile (−8.9% vs +1.8%, P = .03) and screen time (−7.0 h/wk vs +1.3 h/wk, P = .05) and a greater increase in physical activity (+4.0 h/wk vs +2.0 h/wk, P = .05).

Conclusion

Although not associated with differences in lipid profiles, the collaborative educational approach was associated with a greater lifestyle improvement than was the didactic approach over a 6-month period.

 
 
 
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